K9 Thunder - ...ПРОДОЛЖЕНИЕ
On 19 May 1999, the Ministry of National Defense of South Korea ordered its military attaché in Turkey to arrange a presentation for K9 Thunder. On 29 April, Samsung dispatched its sales team, and had a meeting with high ranking Turkish officials including assistant secretary of defense and director of technology. Despite showing interest in K9 Thunder, there was no business deals made as Turkey was planning to produce German Panzerhaubitze 2000 at that time. Another meeting was held on 4 October between Atilla Ateş, commander of the Turkish Land Forces, and military attaché Colonel Go regarding K9 production in Turkey and solution for import restriction on MTU Friedrichshafen engines by German government. As Turkey's plan to build PzH2000 eventually became halted by Germany, South Korea and Turkey signed MOU to strengthen military and defense cooperation on 18 November.
On 12 December, Turkey sent a team of military general and engineers to Korea to inspect K9 Thunder. Satisfied with the performance, Turkey cancelled its plan to find replacement from Israel, and decided to manufacture K9 Thunder. On 19 February 2000, a technology evaluation team consisting members of the Agency of Defense Development and Samsung was sent to Turkey, and inspected various Turkish companies and facilities including Turkish 1010th Army Factory, MKEK, and Aselsan to optimize manufacturing process of K9 in Turkey. On 4 May 2000, the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of Korea and Turkish Land Forces Command signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to supply 350 K9 systems till 2011.
However, on the same day the MOU was signed, Germany informed South Korea that Germany will not allow sales of license produced MTU engines to Turkey due to its political reasons, thus possibly cancelling the project. To solve the issue, Korea prepared for British Perkins Engines, which was already been examined for K9 during early designing phase, and negotiate with Germany in meantime. On 29 May 2000 during ministerial talks, South Korea asked Germany to permit sales of MTU engines, or it may experience hardship in purchasing German equipment for its future needs.
On 20 June, Turkey transferred $3.35 million to build a prototype, and engineers were sent to Samsung Techwin for technical training. Between July to August, parts for the prototype were built and sent to Turkey, and the engineers returned and assembled the vehicle with assistance from Korean counterparts. On 15 December, Germany approved Korea in exporting maximum of 400 engines to Turkey after reaching an agreement with license producing German Type 214 submarine as a winner of the KSS-II program for the Republic of Korea Navy. The prototype was finally equipped with engine, ending the assembly on 30 December 2000, and earned the nickname Fırtına (Storm).
Winter test was held in January and February 2001 at Sarıkamış, and Fırtına was able to operate in snowy mountain terrain without issue. It also went thru firing test in 10 to 23 of March at Karapinar, and summer test at Diyarbakır between April and May. On 12 May, Fırtına took a major part of firepower demonstration, showing its capabilities live on-air as it was needed for military to earn support from people and politicians to manufacture Fırtına amid economic crisis.
A formal contract was signed by Samsung Techwin (formerly Samsung Aerospace Industries) and the Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in Seoul on 20 July 2001. South Korean government will transfer the technologies belong to the ADD that are used for Turkish variant for free in exchange for Turkey to purchase 350 vehicles-280 for Turkish Land Forces and 70 for its future customer-by 2011, which the total is expected to be $1 billion. The first batch of 24 T-155 consists $65 million worth of Korean subsystems. The Turkish model was named T-155 Fırtına. Hanwha Defense has generated more than $600 million from Turkey since then, much lower than expectation from 2001 since Turkey only produced 280 units as well as its effort to increase localization gradually by indigenous research and from technology transfer.
In 1999, the same year Poland joined the NATO, it launched a military program named Regina Project to replace its Soviet-era gears with the NATO standard 155 mm artillery system. The British BAE Systems was chosen by Poland for technical cooperation to build a new design. Later, the plan was changed to use modified AS-90 turret and combine with UPG-NG chassis from domestic company Bumar to shorten the development schedule.
However, the UPG-NG chassis experienced series of issues during trial. The chassis was unable to support its 20 t turret by failing the shock absorption from 155 mm 52 caliber weapon system, often breaking and cracking the parts. In addition, the factory that has been producing S-12U engine for the vehicle was closed down, causing major discrepancy in logistics even before the mass production stage. In 2008, after four years since the prototype was revealed, Polish Ministry of Defense warned Bumar to fix the issue by 2014, otherwise it will look for foreign partner instead. Bumar failed to meet the ROC (required operational capability), thus K9 Thunder platform was chosen for the weapon project.
On 17 December 2014, Samsung Techwin signed a cooperation agreement with Huta Stalowa Wola to supply K9 Thunder chassis for AHS Krab self-propelled howitzer. The deal is worth $310 million for 120 chassis, which includes related technology transfer and the power pack. From 2015 to 2022, 24 units will be manufactured in South Korea, and 96 will be license produced in Poland. First chassis rolled out on 26 June 2015, and all 24 vehicles produced in Korea left for Poland as of October 2016. HSW will begin producing K9 chassis starting in 2017.
Late in May 2022, the Polish government donated 18 AHS Krab howitzers to Ukraine to assist the Ukrainian military to defend against Russia during the invasion of Ukraine. On 29 May, Polish minister of defense visited South Korea for high level talks regarding the purchase of various Korean weapons including additional K9 chassis to increase AHS Krab production. On June 7, Poland and Ukraine signed a contract for the purchase of an additional 54 units plus support vehicles, in a deal worth US$700 million. The agreement was the largest defense contract that Polish defense industry had made.
On 27 July 2022, Polish Armaments Group (PGZ) and Hanwha Defense signed a framework agreement to supply 672 K9PL. Hanwha Defense hopes to expand the deal plus adding K10 and K11 support vehicles. Poland will also produce AHS Krab in parallel; however, due to the low production capability, the deliveries of the existing order will be completed by 2026. On 26 August 2022, an executive contract of $2.4 billion was signed to acquire 212 K9A1s manufactured by Hanwha Defense as a first batch order. The deal does not include accompanying vehicles; however, it consists of crew training, including simulators, logistics packages, and a large amount of ammunition. To match the delivery time, the first 48 howitzers-12 upgraded vehicles and 36 to be refurbished to K9A1s-will be transferred from the Republic of Korea Army inventory. The ROKA will be compensated with newly produced vehicles by the end of 2023. All howitzers will be equipped with Polish communication system and Topaz Automated Fire Control Kit, which is intended for operating with Polish command vehicles. Delivery will commence between 2022-2026. Poland plans to build K9PL locally afterward via technology transfer for the second batch. On 7 September, Hanwha Defense and WB Electronics signed a $139.5 million deal for installation of Polish communication systems on the first batch order.
The first batch of 24 K9PL was rolled out on 19 October 2022.
On 1 June 2016 at KDEC (Korea Defense Equipment & Component) industry fair, two nations signed a MOU for defense cooperation including export of used K9. In July 2016, the Finnish Ministry of Defence announced that an undisclosed number of used K9s have been selected to be acquired from the Republic of Korea. The acquisition is claimed to be biggest of the decade for the Land Forces, whose both mobile and towed artillery face mass outdating in the 2020s. In September 2016, K9 was field tested in Finland, and Seppo Toivonen, the commander of the Finnish Army, visited South Korea to inspect operating units during 2016 DX Korea. On 25 November 2016, two countries signed MOU to supply 48 used K9 for $200 million and match equal amount of free technology transfer related to vehicle maintenance.
On 17 February 2017, the Ministry of Defense announced that Finland will acquire 48 used K9s over a period of seven years starting in 2018, with conscript training on the equipment commencing in 2019. On 2 March 2017, final contract of value of €145 million ($160 million) was signed by two governments in Seoul, South Korea.
On 21 October 2021, Finnish Ministry of Defense authorized exercising option to purchase 10 additional units including spare parts and supplies-5 in 2021 and another 5 in 2022-for €30 million, increasing the fleet size to 58 vehicles.
On 18 November 2022 Finnish Minister of Defence Antti Kaikkonen authorized purchace of another 38 vehicles for €134 million.
The Finnish designation of the howitzer is K9FIN Moukari (Sledgehammer).
On 25 March 2012, South Korean president Lee Myung-bak and the Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh signed MOU to strengthen the economy and military exchanges. On 29 March 2012 at DEFEXPO, Samsung Techwin and Larsen & Toubro announced their partnership to produce the K9 Thunder in India. As per the agreement, Samsung Techwin will transfer key technologies, and the vehicle will be manufactured under license in India using 50 per cent of the domestic content such as FCS and communication system.
Two units of K9 were sent to Thar Desert, Rajasthan for firing and mobility test, and competed against Russian 2S19. Operated by Indian military personnel, the K9 fired 587 Indian ammunitions including Nub round and drove a total distance of 1,000 km. Maintenance test was conducted at Pune, EMI (electromagnetic interference) test at Chennai, and technical environment test was held in Bengaluru until March 2014. K9 Thunder achieved all ROC set by Indian military while the Russian counterpart failed to do so. Hanwha Techwin (previously Samsung Techwin) later told in an interview that the Russian engine performance dropped when the air density is low and in high temperature, the placement of the engine also resulted in the center of the mass located at the rear, making the vehicle difficult to climb high angles. On the other hand, K9 benefitted from automatic control system of the engine, providing the optimum performance based on given condition automatically-this was one of the decisive reason why India selected K9 over 2S19.
In September 2015, the Indian Ministry of Defense selected Hanwha Techwin and Larsen & Toubro as preferred bidder to supply 100 K9 Vajra-T to the Indian Army after K9 outperformed 2S19 Msta-S and passed two-year trial. On 6 July 2016, India agreed in purchasing 100 K9 Vajra-T for $750 million. On 29 March 2017, The Government of India approved budget of $646 million for purchasing 100 K9 Vajra-T. A formal contract of $310 million was signed between Hanwha Techwin and Larsen & Toubro in New Delhi on 21 April. Hanwha Techwin will supply first 10 K9 Vajra-T, and 90 will be license produced in India by Larsen & Toubro.
K9 Vajra-T consist 14 major Indian manufactured systems, 50% of component by value, which include Nub ammunition capable FCS and its storage, communication system, and environment control and NBC protection system. Additional systems were installed such as GPS (Gunner's Primary Sight) for direct firing capability, and South African APU, which was proven for desert operation-Korean APU was under development phase during Indian trial. The vehicle's overall design was modified to suitable for operation in desert and high temperature condition, including the change of firing rate to 3 rounds in 30 seconds.
In February 2020, media reported that IIT Madras along with IIT Kanpur, Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) and Research Centre Imarat (RCI) are working on redesigning an existing 155 mm shell using ramjet propulsion that can cover 60 km+ range. It will be compatible with K9 Vajra-T. The shell will use precision guidance kit for trajectory correction. IIT Madras is ensuring that Munitions India can manufacture the shells.
The 100th vehicle was delivered to the Indian Army on 18 February 2021, completing the contract ahead the schedule.
In May 2021, it was reported that India's Defence Research and Development Organisation is working with Larsen & Toubro on a light tank using the K9 chassis with 105 mm or 120 mm gun system to counter China's Type 15 tank. The light tank variant was opted out as the estimated vehicle weight exceeded 30 t, limiting the places to operate.
The Indian Army planned ordering an additional 40 K-9 Vajra-T from Larsen & Toubro as of 2021 after completion of high altitude trials at Ladakh under cold climatic conditions. India is also looking to export the K9 Vajra-T variant to third countries in collaboration with South Korea and industry partners. After satisfactory performance at high altitude terrain, Ministry of Defence (MoD) is getting ready to place repeat order of 200 K9 Vajra-T worth ₹9,600 crore. The proposal for first 100 units was cleared on 27 September 2022. The new batch will equip enhanced engine suited for high altitude operation, and is expected to complete delivery by 2028.
In May 2015, Samsung Techwin joined Norwegian artillery upgrade program, competing against KMW Panzerhaubitze 2000, Nexter CAESAR 6x6, and RUAG M109 KAWEST to replace M109Gs with 24 new systems. A single K9 was sent to Norway to join the competition. Operated by sales team, the vehicle went through tests between November 2015 to January 2016. During January winter test, K9 was the only vehicle that managed to drive through meter-thick snow field and fire its weapon without any issue while competing vehicles experienced engine troubles or broken parts. In addition, K9's engine was able to maintain heat overnight by simply covering the area with tarpaulin, thus allowing the engine to ignite without failure next day at −40 °C. Also, the hydropneumatic suspension became a huge advantage for mobility as its mechanism melted snow on mobility parts much quicker. The test result also impacted Finland and Estonia, whom were invited to observe performances for their artillery replacement, to acquire K9.
On 24 August 2016 the Norwegian Defence Materiel Agency published their intention to continue negotiations with Hanwha Techwin and RUAG, while Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Nexter Systems had been put "on hold". Unnamed sources in the Norwegian Army had previously stated that the K9 was a leading candidate in the competition.
On 20 December 2017, a contract of $230 million was signed between Hanwha Land Systems and Norwegian Ministry of Defense for supplying 24 K9 Thunder and 6 K10 ARV by 2020. K9 outperformed competitors in various weather and terrain conditions according to Norwegian military officials during trials.
Norwegian variant was named K9 VIDAR (Versatile InDirect ARtillery system), and is based on K9A1 configuration. It differs from K9A1 by changing the BTCS to Norwegian ODIN fire support system and radio communication systems for the NATO operation. It also mounts gunner's sight for direct firing, and installed spall liner for additional protection. Norwegian company Kongsberg participated in upgrading K9 for Norway, Finland, and Estonia; the company will partner with Hanwha Defense again for Australia's AS9 program.
On 7 November 2022, Norway used an option signed in 2017 to purchase 4 K9s and 8 K10s, increasing its total vehicles to 28 K9s and 14 K10s (2:1 ratio). The delivery is expected to be completed in 2 years.
Estonia was invited by Finland in teaming up for the procurement of K9 to reduce the purchase cost for both nations. Benefitted by group buying, the test data of K9 was provided and shared to Estonia by Finland with approval from South Korea. In February 2017, Estonian military officials visited South Korea for price negotiation; Estonia is expected to purchase 12 K9s for $50 million.
On 26 June 2018, Rauno Sirk, the director of the Estonian military procurement agency, announced that Estonia will buy K9 Thunder howitzers. Hanwha Land Systems will supply 12 used K9s, including maintenance parts and training for €46 million, similar contract to that of Finland. On 24 October 2019, Estonian Ministry of Defense announced that it will exercise the option to purchase 6 additional K9 from the previous contract, with an estimated value of €20 million.
On 4 August 2021, Estonian Centre for Defense Investment (RKIK) signed €4.6 million contract with Hanwha Defense and GoCraft in modernizing 24 K9EST Kõu, hinting 6 more purchase for its inventory. The upgrade involves communication system, FCS, painting, fire suppression system, and electronics.
On 22 September 2022, it was reported that Estonia has a possession of 24 vehicles in total.
1 June 2005 in Australia, the defense ministers of the two nations held a meeting and discussed trading opportunities involving K9 Thunder and Australian 5 inch naval gun ammunition. On 3 August 2009, it was reported that consortium of Samsung Techwin and Raytheon Australia was on upper hand for Australia's Land 17 artillery replacement program by becoming a sole bidder as Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, the manufacturer of Panzerhaubitze 2000, did not respond in providing detailed offering proposal that Australia requested. The vehicle was sent to Australia, and was evaluated by Australian military starting in April 2010. The test included firing M982 Excalibur, a requirement which the K9 satisfied. The Australian variant AS9 was expected to feature the NATO standard FCS, the BMS-F (Battlefield Management System - Fires), the RWS (Remote Weapon System), and anti-tank mine protection. The hydropneumatic suspension was also enhanced to support its increased weight.
In June 2010, K9 became the preferred bidder for the LAND 17 program; however, the project budget was redirected for restoration due to the floods in Queensland in 2011, which led to the cancelation of the project in May 2012.
On 14 May 2019, in the lead-up to the 2019 Federal Election, the Prime Minister of Australia, Scott Morrison, announced that 30 K9 howitzers and associated support equipment, including ten K10 ammunition resupply vehicles, would be acquired for the ADF. No time frame has been given for the purchase.
On 3 September 2020, the Minister for Defense, Linda Reynolds, announced a request for tender to locally build 30 K9s under the Land 8116 Phase 1 Protected Mobility Fires requirement. The sole-source request for tender will be released to the preferred supplier, Hanwha Defense Australia, to build and maintain 30 K9s and 15 K10s, as well as their supporting systems. These will be built at Hanwha Defense Australia's Geelong facility. Australian variant AS9 Huntsman is based on Norwegian K9 VIDAR. It will retain the options offered in 2010 with up-to-date modifications.
On 13 December 2021, the Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group (CASG) of Australia and Hanwha Defense Australia signed a formal contract of producing 30 AS9s and 15 AS10 AARVs under license at Hanwha Defense Australia facility in Geelong, Victoria; the facility, which is included in the contract, will begin its construction in Q2 2022. The CASG and the DAPA also signed an MOU for defense cooperation between the two countries. The estimated value of the deal is $788 million, and manufacturing is expected to start in Q4 2024.
On 23 February 2022, Hanwha Defense Australia made a selection of site of 150,000 m2, which includes 32,000 m2 manufacturing facility, 1.5 km long track, and various test and R&D sites, for its first overseas factory named H-ACE (Hanwha Armoured Vehicle Centre of Excellence) at Geelong, which will create 300 jobs for local specialists. Construction began on 8 April, and is expected to take 2 years to complete.
On 11 March 2022, Hanwha Defense signed a $67 million deal with Kongsberg for the installation of C4 for Australian vehicles. The Norwegian partner is expected to supply Integrated Combat Solution (ICS) as well as ODIN fire support systems via Kongsberg Australia. On 19 July, Hanwha Systems signed a contract with Hanwha Defense Australia to supply HUMS (Health and Usage Monitoring System) and Situational Awareness System (SAS) for AS9s and AS10s at a cost of 20.8 billion KRW.
In 2010, K9 was evaluated by Egyptian military to replace its aging artillery fleet. However, the deal was delayed as Egyptian government requested a reduction on technology transfer fees, of which the Korean government had the ownership, not the company. The negotiation stopped as regional instability due to the Arab Spring caused Egyptian government to postpone the project indefinitely.
In April 2017, it was reported that Hanwha Techwin was in negotiations with Egypt to export its K9 Thunder self-propelled howitzer. A K9 howitzer was sent to Egypt in July, and performed test-firing at a range located west of Cairo in August, along with other competitors including French CAESAR, Russian 2S35 Koalitsiya-SV, and Chinese PLZ-45. During the test, K9 hit the target ship approaching to the shore, successfully performing the access denial against enemy ships for the Egyptian Navy.
On 10 October 2021, the two nations discussed the sales of K9 Thunder. The estimated value of the deal is $2 billion including training of technicians. In the same month, the Egyptian minister of military production visited Hanwha Defense and Hyundai WIA facility to see the manufacturing process of K9 Thunder and K2 Black Panther respectively. Two parties met again at the EDEX 2021, including the President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi for discussion of the export of the howitzer. Egypt is looking to produce the howitzer under license.
On 1 February 2022, the Defense Acquisition Program Administration announced that Hanwha Defense signed a $1.6 billion K9 Thunder export contract at Egypt's Artillery House, attended by Egypt's Ministry of National Defense and key officials from both countries. The deal includes the production of unspecified numbers of K9A1EGY, K10, and K11 FDCV in Egypt, including technology transfer, according to the Defense Acquisition Program Administration (DAPA). An unknown quantity of early productions will be produced in South Korea and delivered to the Egyptian Army and the Egyptian Navy. On 25 February, two more contracts involving parts purchase and assembly were signed at the Military Factory 200, a state-owned Egyptian arms manufacturer.
The production of the first K9A1EGY is expected in Q4 2022 with armor steel provided from Bisalloy Steel. The first batch will be delivered to Egypt until 2024, while the rest will be produced in Egypt with a localization rate of 50%. Egypt is expecting to increase localization to 67% in five years. On 22 October 2022, Hanwha Defense signed a contract with Arab International Optronics in transferring automatic fire control system (AFCS) and other substantial technologies.
In September 2021, Hanwha Defense launched Team Thunder joined by Leonardo UK, Pearson Engineering, Horstman Defence Systems, and Soucy Defense to participate Mobile Fires Platform (MFP) program starting in the late 2023 to replace Britain's AS90 with K9A2 variant. The team expanded as Lockheed Martin UK also joined Team Thunder on 8 March 2022. The K9A2 was first revealed in the United Kingdom during Defense Vehicle Dynamics 2022 at UTAC Millbrook Proving Ground on 21-22 September.
On 23 September 2022, Romanian Minister of National Defense Vasile Dincu visited South Korea and signed a letter of intent to strengthen defense cooperation. On 26, Romanian media reported that the military is interested in purchasing K9 Thunder and K2 Black Panther.
K9 Thunder participated in a bid against Nexter Systems CAESAR 8x8 and Soltam Systems ATMOS 2000. On 14 March 2017, the Danish military announced however it had selected the competing CAESAR 8x8 instead.
Variants and upgrades
XK9: Experimental prototype. 2 built.
K9 Thunder: First-production variant.
T-155 Fırtına: Turkish self-propelled howitzer based on the K9. Manufactured and assembled by Turkish Land Forces using subsystems imported from South Korea. Turret is modified to store additional ammunition, but increasing combat weight in return. The vehicle has APU installed, but lacks commander's panoramic sight.
AS9 "Aussie Thunder": Offered Australian variant of the K9 in 2010. It featured enhanced FCS, BMS-F, RWS, and anti-tank mine protection capability. The suspension is also upgraded to support increased weight.
AHS Krab: Polish self-propelled howitzer, uses the K9 chassis and power pack. Chassis is license produced by Huta Stalowa Wola.
K9 PIP: K9 upgrade plan noticeably adding APU, upgraded FCS. The upgrade later evolved into K9A1 with additional modifications.
K9 Vajra-T (Lightning): Indian variant of the K9. Manufactured by Larsen & Toubro under license. It is customized for desert and alpine operations, and equips Safran MINEO DFSS for direct firing.
K9FIN Moukari (Sledge-hammer): Finnish variant of the K9. Formerly used by the Republic of Korea Armed Forces, and refurbished with upgrades.
K9EST Kõu (Lightning): Estonian variant of the K9. Formerly used by the Republic of Korea Armed Forces, and refurbished with upgrades.
K9A1: First enhanced variant for the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. First K9A1 rolled out and is in service of the Republic of Korea Army since 2018. All K-9 operated by the ROK Armed Forces will be upgraded to A1 or future variant by 2030.
K9 VIDAR (Versatile InDirect ARtillery system): Norwegian variant of the K9A1 with Norwegian subsystems and better protection. Uses Safran MINEO DFSS for direct firing.
AS9 Huntsman: Australian variant of the K9. Its an upgraded version of K9 VIDAR standard with additional armor package and enhanced suspension. New hull design is similar to AS21 Redback in appearance.
K9A1EGY : Egyptian variant of K9A1. Will be produced under license in Egypt.
K9A2: Second enhanced variant for the Republic of Korea Armed Forces. 1 prototype built and shown to the public in 2022, and is in development. Also known as K9A2 Block-I to differentiate from 58 caliber variant.
K9PL: Licensed variant of the K9A2 for the Polish Land Forces.
K9A2 Block-II: 155 mm 58 caliber variant of K9A2. Proposal stage only.
K9A3: Fully automated and unmanned K9A2. Under development.
K10 ARV (Ammunition Resupply Vehicle): Automatic resupplying vehicle for K9 Thunder using the same chassis.
K10 VIDAR (Versatile InDirect ARtillery system): Norwegian variant of the K10.
K10 AARV (Armored Ammunition Resupply Vehicle): Enhanced protection variant of K10 ARV.
AS10: Australian variant of the K10 AARV. Similar configuration to AS9.
AS10C2: Suggested protected Command & Control Post variant based on AS10.
K11 FDCV (Fire Direction Control Vehicle): Fire direction control vehicle based on K10.
Australia - Factory under construction.
Australia will build 30 AS9 Huntsman self-propelled howitzers and 15 AS10 AARVs under license at Geelong.
Egypt - In finalization for production and technology transfer.
Egypt placed an order for undisclosed amount of K9A1EGY, K10, and K11 on 1 February 2022. Production starts in 2022 Q4 at Hanwha Defense in South Korea.
Estonia - 24 K9EST Kõu in service in the Estonian Land Forces.
Estonia placed an order for 12 used K9 with an option for 12 additional systems on 26 June 2018. Estonia exercised option for 6 additional howitzers on 24 October 2019. Deliveries began in 2020. It was reported that Estonia received 24 vehicles as of September 2022.
Finland - 58 K9FIN Moukari in service in the Finnish Army. 38 vehicles on order.
Finland placed an order for 48 used K9 with an option for 48 additional systems on 3 March 2017. 10 additional units were ordered in 2021 and 2022. 38 more ordered in 2022, using full option contract signed in 2017.
India - 100 K9 Vajra-T in service in the Indian Army. 100 vehicles in production.
10 K9 Vajra-Ts were bought from South Korea and assembled by Larsen & Toubro in India, and were handed to the Indian Army in 2018. Remaining 90 vehicles were produced by Larsen & Toubro, and all were delivered by February 2021. India placed a second order for 100 vehicles on 27 September 2022.
Norway - 24 K9 VIDAR and 6 K10 VIDAR in service in the Norwegian Army. 4 K9 and 8 K10 on order.
Norway initially placed an order for 24 K9 VIDARs and 6 K10 VIDARs, to replace M109A3GNM, with an option for another 24 K9 and additional K10. First deliveries took place in 2019. Another 4 K9 and 8 K10 were ordered in November 2022.
Poland - At least 80 K9 chassis produced for AHS Krab in service in the Polish Land Forces. 24 K9PL(A1) produced, 188 in production.
120 K9 chassis will be produced as part of the AHS Krab program. 24 were built in Korea, and 96 are produced under license in Poland.
Poland ordered 212 K9A1 on 26 August 2022. Delivery will commence between 2022 to 2026.
South Korea - An estimated 1,300 K9/A1 and 450 K10 in service in the Republic of Korea Army and the Republic of Korea Marine Corps.
An estimated 1,300 K9s (1998-2017, Batch 1-10) and K9A1s (2017-2019, Batch 11) were produced, as well as an estimated more than 450 K10s (2006-2019, Batch 1-6) for the Army and the Marine Corps. On 13 November 2020, all vehicles are in full operational capability. All K9 are in process of upgrading to K9A1 or future variant by 2030.
Turkey - 280 T-155 Fırtına in service in the Turkish Land Forces.
The Turkish Land Forces produced 280 T-155 Fırtına. Turkey originally sought to manufacture 350 (280 for domestic use and 70 for exports) by 2011. However, Germany's veto on export of Korean licensed MTU engines via Turkey prevented export of T-155 as well.