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2S1 Gvozdika - САУ (Украина)

2S1 Gvozdika

2S1 (SAU-122)
Type - Self-propelled artillery
Place of origin - Soviet Union
Service history
In service - 1972-present
Wars - Soviet-Afghan War / Iran-Iraq War / Gulf War / War in Abkhazia (1992-1993) / Yugoslav Wars / First Chechen War / Second Chechen War / Iraq War / Russo-Georgian War / First Libyan Civil War / Second Libyan Civil War / Syrian Civil War / Russo-Ukrainian War / 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh War
Production history
Designer - Kharkiv Tractor Plant
Designed - 1956-1961
Produced - 1971-1991
No. built - more than 10,000
Specifications
Mass - 16 tonnes (35,273 lbs)
Length - 7.26 m (23 ft 10 in)
Barrel length - 4.27 m (14 ft 0 in)
Width - 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)
Height - 2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)
Crew - 4
Shell - 122 x 447 mm R (separate loading, cased charge)
Caliber - 122 mm
Breech - Horizontal sliding-wedge, semi-automatic
Elevation - -3 to +70 degrees
Traverse - 360 degrees
Rate of fire - Maximum: 5 rpm / Sustained: 1-2 rpm
Muzzle velocity - 680 m/s (2,200 ft/s)
Maximum firing range - Conventional: 15.3 km (9.5 mi) / Extended: 21.9 km (13.6 mi)
Armor - 7-20 mm (.78 in)
Main armament - 2A18 122 mm (4.8 in) howitzer
Engine - YaMZ-238N diesel / 220 kW (300 hp)
Suspension - torsion bar
Operational range - 500 km (310 mi)
Maximum speed - Road: 60 km/h (37 mph) / Off-road: 30 km/h (18 mph) / Swim: 4.5 km/h (2.8 mph)

The 2S1 Gvozdika (Russian: 2С1 «Гвоздика», "Carnation") is a Soviet self-propelled howitzer based on the MT-LBu multi-purpose chassis, mounting a 122 mm 2A18 howitzer. "2S1" is its GRAU designation. An alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as Gvozdika. The 2S1 is fully amphibious with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of track widths are available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infrared night-vision capability.
Description
The 2S1 has seven road wheels on each side; the running gear can be fitted with different widths of track to match terrain. The interior is separated into a driver's compartment on the left, an engine compartment on the right and a fighting compartment to the rear. Within the fighting compartment the commander sits on the left, the loader on the right and the gunner to the front. The all-welded turret is located above the fighting compartment. The 2S1 uses a 122 mm howitzer based on the towed D-30 howitzer. The gun is equipped with a power rammer, a double-baffle muzzle brake and a fume extractor. It is capable of firing HE (high explosive), leaflet, HE/RAP, armor-piercing HE, flechette and chemical rounds.
Production history
The first prototype was ready in 1958. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division). It was designated the M1974 by the U.S. Army and manufactured in Soviet, Polish and Bulgarian state factories.

Variants

Former Soviet Union/Russia
2S34 Khosta - Modernisation of the 2S1 with the 122 mm 2A31 gun replaced by the 120 mm 2A80-1 gun-mortar. Further improvements include a new Malakhit fire control system, a battlefield observation system and the ability to fire the Kitolov-2M guided ammunition. One unit, the 21st Guards Motor Rifle Brigade in Totskoye, is currently being equipped with the system.
2S15 Norov - A prototype tank destroyer equipped with a radar-based fire control system and a 100 mm gun.
2S8 Astra
UR-77 Meteorit - Mine clearing vehicle with launcher for mine-clearing line charges.
Ukraine
Kevlar-E - Infantry fighting vehicle based on the 2S1 platform, equipped with Shturm remote weapon station and room for 6 passengers in addition to the 3 crew. The original 300 horsepower V8 diesel engine has been replaced with 420 horsepower diesel engine, produced by Caterpillar, Cummins or Deutz, increasing the maximum road speed to 70 km/h. Additionally, the vehicle is amphibious, includes air conditioning, a fire detection and suppression system, an NBC system, navigation system and night-vision equipment. The variant was first introduced in April 2018.
Poland
The 2S1 Gvozdika (as well as other related vehicles such as the MT-LB and Opal) were produced in Poland by Huta Stalowa Wola under the name 2S1 Goździk.
2S1M Goździk - Version with special amphibious kit that increases the vehicle's amphibious capabilities.
2S1T Goździk - Version with a TOPAZ digital fire control system from WB electronics. The system consists of a FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. The same system is used on other Polish Armed Forces artillery systems like the AHS Krab, Dana-T and WR-40 Langusta.
Romania
OAPR model 89 (Obuzierul autopropulsat românesc, model 89) - Romanian variant combining the 2S1 Gvozdika's turret and a modified version of the MLI-84's chassis. Designed around 1978, produced between 1987 and 1992. Also simply known as Model 89.
Iran
Raad-1 ('thunder') - Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh APC.
Serbia
2S1 modernized - The modernization is being carried out on the basis of the 122 mm towed howitzer of the Serbian modernization program. Project "SORA 122 mm" and NORA B-52. Where the truck platform was abandoned, which was used by the proto-type version of the "SORA 122 mm" system In favor of a much better, crawler platform 2S1 Gvozdika system. The action was made possible by two new projectiles, an increased target on the target, and an increased range of about 40% from 15,200 to almost 22,000 m. By installing a new ballistic computer, and a fire control system, which enables, it is much faster to take a combat position, as well as to leave the same combat position. There is also a new inertial navigation system, as well as GPRS, as well as the possibility of action, multiple projectiles in one point MRSI. Thus, it was achieved that with one 2S1 Gvozdika system, in the system of MRSI action in one point, 6 projectiles can be fired in a minute. Which leads to the fact that one system 2S1 Gvozdika, with this modernization, practically changes the whole battery of this system, before the modernization. Also, for better protection of the 2S1 Gvozdika system itself, a turret with a 12.7 mm machine gun was added. In 2021, the first battery of the modernized 2S1 Gvozdika system was introduced into the Serbian Army.
Myanmar
2S1U - In March 2019, a Ukrainian company, the Great Export Import Company, and the Myanmar military have signed a joint-venture agreement to build a plant capable of manufacturing armored personnel carriers (APCs) and self-propelled howitzers. The types of APCs that will be made in the plant are said to be eight-wheeled BTR-4Us while the howitzers will be 2S1Us, which are based on the MT-LBu multipurpose chassis.

Operators

Current operators
 Algeria - 145.
 Angola
 Armenia - 20.
 Azerbaijan - 81 2S1 and unknown number of UR-77.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina - 5.
 Belarus - 246.
 Bulgaria - 506. In 2013, 11 SPG delivered from Poland.
 Chad - 10.
 Cuba
 Croatia - 9 (to be used alongside 15 Panzerhaubitze 2000 from German Army stock).
 Eritrea - 20.
 Ethiopia
 Finland - 74 (known as 122 PsH 74). In 2013 three delivered from Poland.
 Georgia - 48.
 South Ossetia
 India - 110 (to be replaced).
 Iran
 Kazakhstan - 10.
 Libya
 Moldova
 Transnistria
 Poland - 198 To be replaced by SMK Rak and AHS Krab. Some are donated to Ukraine forces during Russian invasion of Ukraine.
 Russia - 622.
 Serbia - 81.
 Syria - 400.
 Turkmenistan - unknown number in service as of 2016.
Top Gear Police Department - 1.
 Ukraine - 638. In June 2018 33 2S1 delivered from Poland and July 2019 16 delivered from Czech Republic.
 Uruguay - 6 delivered in 1998 from Czech Republic.
 Uzbekistan
 Vietnam
 Yemen

Former operators
 Czech Republic - Phased out in the early 2000s.
 Czechoslovakia - Passed on to successor states.
 East Germany - Phased out in 1990 after German reunification.
 Hungary - Phased out in 2004. Original there were 144 pieces of Gvozdikas.
 Iraq - Phased out.
 Islamic State
 Romania - Phased out. 48 reserve status since 2005 (42 OAPR 89s and 6 2S1 Gvozdikas).
 Slovakia - Phased out.
 Slovenia - Phased out. 8 reserve status.
 Soviet Union - Passed on to successor states.
 Yugoslavia - Passed on to successor states.

Combat history
Afghanistan - Soviet-Afghan War
Chechnya (Russia) - First Chechen War (1994-1996), Second Chechen War (1999 to 2000)
Iraq - Iran-Iraq War, Gulf War, Iraq War
Yugoslavia - Yugoslav Wars
Georgia - Russo-Georgian War
Libya - First Libyan Civil War, Second Libyan Civil War
Syria - Syrian Civil War
Ukraine - Russo-Ukrainian War

PLZ-07
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122 mm howitzer 2A18 (D-30)
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