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BMP-1 - БМП (СССР), модификации В СССР

BMP-1 - ...МОДИФИКАЦИИ В СССР

List of BMP-1 variants

This is a complete list of variants and designations of the BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle (IFV). It is sorted by country of origin.

Variants

Soviet Union

Infantry fighting vehicles
BMP (Ob'yekt 764) - The original main prototype of the BMP-1 was developed by the design bureau of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Works (ChTZ) and built in 1965. In comparison with Ob'yekt 765Sp1, Ob'yekt 764 was 4 mm higher, had a maximum swimming speed of 10 km/h, a lower maximum range (550 km on road) and a reduced number of firing ports for its passenger's armament (six). The vehicle had a curved shock-absorber behind the first road wheel and the rear fender and two tool stowage boxes on the fenders. To start production of the new vehicle, the design of the fighting and troop compartments were improved. Unlike the BMP-1, Ob'yekt 764 used a waterjet for swimming, which was removed to save space inside the vehicle. Ob'yekt 764 also had a larger main fuel tank, while the BMP-1 had the main fuel tank reduced in size and partially placed under the troop compartment.
Ob'yekt 765 - An improved Ob'yekt 764.
Ob'yekt 765 was fitted with an active location system for its eight passengers. It was developed in the mid-1960s. Its turret was moved to the rear of the hull. It was also fitted with three additional 7.62 mm PKT general-purpose machine guns in ball mounts in the middle of the hull. Three prototypes were built.
BMP (Ob'yekt 765Sp1) (Sp stands for spetsifikatsiya - specification) - An early type with a shorter nose section and a larger angled plate at the top of the hull line. The two tool stowage boxes on the fenders were removed. The swim vanes were modified by reducing the number of vanes from seven to four and the fender profile was raised nearer to the horizontal. The fume extraction ports on the hull roof to the rear of the turret were moved outwards and reoriented to point toward the rear of the vehicle. The single torsion bar used to spring the rear roof troop hatches was replaced by a twin torsion bar system. The firing ports on the side were moved up into the armor plate, giving the weapons used in the ports a higher degree of elevation. The vehicle weighs 12.6 tonnes. It was built from 1966 to 1969. It is sometimes incorrectly known as the BMP-A by some Western sources. NATO gave it the designation BMP Model 1966.
BMP-1 (Ob'yekt 765Sp2) - The standard production version weighs 13 tonnes. It was built from 1969 to 1973. Vehicles produced from the mid-1970s had a higher hull with more space inside as well as a different shaped nose section which also made it 20 cm longer, giving it an improved swimming capability. The triangular air intake behind the turret was replaced by a circular telescopic snorkel which was raised when the vehicle was afloat. The roof hatches were also slightly rearranged, the air intake located to the front left side of the driver's station was removed and the NBC sensor cover was moved inwards, closer to the turret. To the left of the turret was a prominent NBC filter cover and the PKM port was redesigned. NATO gave it the designation BMP Model 1970.
BMP-1 (Ob'yekt 765Sp2) was equipped with a stabilization system for its 73 mm main gun, a semi-automatic guidance for the 9S428 anti-tank-guided-missile (ATGM) launcher, an improved NBC system, a more powerful engine, an improved automatic loader and improved night vision devices.
BMP-1 (Ob'yekt 765Sp3) - A slightly improved and 200 kg heavier version of Ob'yekt 765Sp2. Unlike its predecessors it had OG-15V HE-Frag rounds in its ammunition load. It was fitted with the new 1PN22M2 sight (with an additional tangent scale OG to be used with HE-Frags OG-15V rounds) instead of the 1PN22M1 sight as well as with a traffic signal system (six marker lights and one stop light). The M3 autoloader was removed. It was built from 1973 to 1979. NATO gave it the designation BMP M1976.
BMP-1S - The experimental prototype was equipped with the AV-1 device at the commander's station for target laser designation and for damaging enemy optics. Developed and tested in the 1970s, ammunition for the ATGM launcher was reduced from four to two 9M14Ms, as was the number of passengers (seven instead of eight).
BMP-1 (Ob'yekt 765Sp8) - This variant was additionally armed with a 30 mm AGS-17 "Plamya" automatic grenade launcher for which it carried 290 rounds. A large number of BMP-1 (Ob'yekts 765Sp1-765Sp3) IFVs were upgraded to this model during preventive and major repairs. Such IFVs carried up to seven troopers instead of eight. In Western sources they are sometimes called the "BMP-1G" but this is not an official Soviet designation. NATO gave it the name BMP M1979/1.
BMP-1 - Fitted with six 81 mm 902V "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers at the rear of the turret. Western sources often call it the BMP-1M but this is not an official Soviet designation.
BMP-1 - Modernized by the Belarusian 140th Repair Workshop from Barysaw in Belarus during major repairs between the 1970s and 2000s (decade). The modernization package included the pintle-mounted 9P135M-1 ATGM launcher capable of firing SACLOS guided 9M113 "Konkurs" (AT-5 Spandrel), 9M113M "Konkurs-M" (AT-5B Spandrel B), 9M111 "Fagot" (AT-4 Spigot) and 9M111-2 "Fagot" (AT-4B Spigot B) ATGMs as well as a new electronic pulsed infrared jam-resistant weapon system.
BMP-1P (Ob'yekt 765Sp4) - The first serious modernization of the BMP-1; it was developed in the middle of the 1970s after an analysis of BMP-1 combat use during the 1973 Yom Kippur War and during the Angolan Civil War three years later. Firepower was enhanced by adding the pintle-mounted 9P135M launcher with a semi-automatic control capable of firing SACLOS guided 9M113 "Konkurs" (AT-5 Spandrel) and 9M113M "Konkurs-M" (AT-5B Spandrel B) ATGMs which increased armor penetration and extended weapon range. The new ATGM launchers were somewhat difficult to operate since the gunner had to stand in the open hatch on top of the turret to use the weapons, exposing himself to hostile fire and in NBC conditions destroying whatever value the BMP-1P's NBC protection suite gave. The Malyutka loading hatch was usually welded shut and the mount was removed. A special NBC protection covering was placed on the inside and outside of the turret, hull, engine compartment upper access hatch, commander's and driver's hatches as well as under the driver's station. A new fire-extinguisher system for protection against napalm was installed after an analysis of armored fighting vehicle (AFV) usage during the Vietnam War. There is an additional machine gun firing port on the left side of the hull and at the front of the turret, increasing the number of firing ports from seven to nine. For protection against air attacks, two 9M32M "Strela-2M" (SA-7b "Grail" Mod 1) or 9M313 Igla-1 (SA-16 Gimlet) missiles of corresponding performance were added instead of the previous 9M32 "Strela-2", but sometimes they were replaced by an RPG-7 anti-tank rocket propelled grenade launcher. The BMP-1P weighs 13.4 tonnes. It was built from 1979 to 1983. NATO gave it the designation BMP M1981.
BMP-1P (Ob'yekt 765Sp5) - It was a late production model fitted with six 81 mm 902V "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers at the rear of the turret and additional kovriki turret armor (some vehicles may lack either the grenade launchers or the additional turret armor). Some vehicles were equipped with a track-width KMT-10 mine plow. In Western sources, BMP-1Ps that were fitted with smoke grenade launchers are often called BMP-1PM but this is not an official Soviet designation. Sometimes a BMP-1P fitted with the KMT-10 is called the BMP-1PM1 and the BMP-1P fitted with additional kovriki turret armor is called the BMP-1PM2 but those are not official Soviet designations.
BMP-1PG (G stands for granatomyot - grenade launcher) is a BMP-1P armed additionally with an AGS-17 "Plamya"automatic grenade launcher on the left hand side of the top of the turret for which it carries 290 grenades. The BMP-1PG was inspired by self-made field modifications. Some crews participating in the Soviet-Afghan War welded a grenade launcher to the top of the turret in order to compensate for the quite low fragmentation effect of the OG15V HE-Frag round used by the main gun. The vehicle weighs 13.6 tonnes and can carry up to seven soldiers instead of the usual eight. A new 9K34 "Strela-3" man-portable air-defense system, was carried inside the troop compartment. A short production run took place at the end of the 1970s. The vehicle entered service with the Soviet Army but many were exported. NATO gave it the designation BMP M1979/2.
BMP-1PG (G stands for granatomyot - grenade launcher) - Modernization was carried out by the Kurgan Engineering Works. There are two variants. The first has tracks and drive sprockets from the BMP-2. The second is the same as the first except for minor chassis improvements and flotation sides-skirts/mudguards from the BMP-2 (many BMP-1Ps were converted into the second variant. They were also fitted with the whole fighting compartment from the BMP-2). The BMP-1PG is considered by the Russian Army, to be the same as the BMP-2, in terms of efficiency. Some BMP-1Ps were reengineered into BMP-1PGs by tank repair plants during scheduled major repairs, some - by the main manufacturer "Kurganmashzavod".
BMP-1D (D stands for "desantnaya" - assault) - This vehicle is a modernized BMP-1 built in 1982 for Soviet assault battalions serving in Afghanistan. It is often known as the "Afghan" variant. It has 5-6 mm thick appliqué steel armor on the sides of the hull as well as five plates per side covering the suspension and additional armor under the commander's and driver's seats for protection against mines. Because of this modification, the side armor of the BMP-1D is able to withstand 12.7 mm armor-piercing rounds fired by the DShK and Browning M2 heavy machine guns used by the Afghan Mujahideen, which can penetrate the side armor of the standard BMP-1, as well as larger artillery shell fragments. The additional armor has holes cut out to allow the transported infantry to use their small arms through the firing ports. Additional firing ports were added into the top hatches of the troop compartment and a stowage box was placed on the roof at the rear of the hull (some vehicles did not have it). The use of appliqué armor increased the ground pressure to 0.65 kg/cm2, decreased the maximum range to 500 km and jeopardized the amphibious ability. The 9S428 ATGM launcher was often replaced by an AGS-17 "Plamya" automatic grenade launcher in field conditions.
Ob'yekt 768 - It was an experimental IFV utilizing parts of the BMP-1 developed and built in 1972. A new two-man turret armed with a 73 mm "Zarnitsa" semi-automatic smoothbore gun and a 12.7 mm coaxial heavy machine gun, was installed. The original design included a small rotating turret on top of the commander's hatch armed with a 7.62 mm PKT general-purpose machine gun but it was not included in the prototype. It was also armed with a pintle-mounted ATGM launcher capable of firing SACLOS guided 9M113 "Konkurs" (AT-5 Spandrel) and 9M113M "Konkurs-M" (AT-5B Spandrel) ATGMs. It carried 40 rounds for the main gun, 500 rounds for the coaxial machine gun and 4 ATGMs. Ob'yekt 768 had a significantly modified nose section and strengthened suspension with an additional road wheel. The track unit was equipped with hydrodynamic grills to increase swimming traction performance but it was decided to remove them because of the damage from stones. It weighed 13.6 tonnes and had a crew of three men (+ 7 troopers). The prototype is preserved at the Kubinka Tank Museum.
Ob'yekt 769 - An experimental IFV based on an Ob'yekt 768 chassis and built in 1972. It was fitted with a new turret armed with a 30 mm 2A42 autocannon and a 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun. A second PKT was installed in a small rotatable turret on top of the hull. It was also armed with a pintle-mounted ATGM launcher capable of firing SACLOS guided 9M113 "Konkurs" (AT-5 Spandrel) and 9M113M "Konkurs-M" (AT-5B Spandrel) ATGMs. It carried 500 rounds for the main gun, 2000 rounds for the machine guns and four ATGMs. The track unit, with hydrodynamic grills, was used for swimming. It was fitted with a diesel engine developing 321 hp (239 kW), weighed 13.8 tonnes and had a crew of three (plus 7 troopers). The turret developed for the Ob'yekt 769 was later slightly improved and installed on the BMP-2. The prototype is preserved at the Kubinka Tank Museum.
Ob'yekt 680 was an experimental IFV utilizing parts of the BMP-1. It was developed and built in 1972. It weighed 13 tonnes and had a crew of 3 (plus 7 troopers). It was armed with a 30 mm 2A38 autocannon and a PKT machine gun fitted into a completely new turret. A second PKT machine gun was installed on top of the commander's hatch. It carried 500 rounds for the main gun and 4000 rounds for the machine guns. This prototype is preserved at the Kubinka Tank Museum.
Ob'yekt 675 was an experimental IFV that had enhanced combat characteristics and utilized parts of the BMP-1; it was tested in 1974. The two-man turret was armed with a 30 mm 2A42 autocannon with a two-plane stabilization system and one 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun. A second machine gun was fitted on top of the commander's hatch. The vehicle carried 500 rounds for the main gun and 2000 rounds for the machine guns. It was also armed with a pintle-mounted 9P135M-1 ATGM launcher capable of firing a SACLOS guided 9M113 "Konkurs" (AT-5 Spandrel) and a 9M113M "Konkurs-M" (AT-5B Spandrel B) as well as a 9M111 "Fagot" (AT-4 Spigot) ATGM and a 9M111-2 "Fagot" (AT-4B Spigot B) ATGM. The vehicle could carry either four "Konkurs" ATGMs or six "Fagot" ATGMs. ATGM guidance equipment is located on the top of the turret and is separated from the ATGM launcher. The IFV weighed 13.6 tonnes and had a crew of 3 (+ 7 troopers).
Ob'yekt 681 - An experimental IFV also utilizing parts of the BMP-1 IFV - it was developed and built in 1977. It weighed 13.6 tonnes and had a crew of 3 (+ 7 troopers). It was armed with a 73 mm "Zarnitsa" semi-automatic smooth-bore gun with a two-plane stabilization system, a 12.7 mm NVST coaxial heavy machine gun, a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun and a 9P135M ATGM launcher. It carried 40 rounds for the main gun, 500 rounds for the coaxial machine gun and 2400 rounds for the machine gun.
BMP-2 (Ob'yekt 675) - An IFV with enhanced fighting qualities based on the BMP-1 and fitted with a new two-man turret armed with a 30 mm 2A42 autocannon.
Command and staff
BMP-1K (Ob'yekt 773) (K stands for komandirskaya - command) - Command variant of the BMP-1 for motorized rifle regiments, developed in 1972. One of the most common BMP-1 conversions. Production started in 1973. Standard armament was preserved. The troop compartment was redesigned to accommodate field tables and map boards. There is seating space for three officers. It has an additional antenna, R-123M and R-111 radios and a GPK-69 navigation system. All firing ports except for the one in the left rear door and periscopes were blocked (all machine gun firing ports were welded shut along with all firing ports on the right hand side of the hull). Some are equipped with the GLONASS navigation system. NATO gave it the designation BMP M1974. It has three sub variants:
 - BMP-1K1 - Platoon command variant of BMP-1 with two R-123M radios.
 - BMP-1K2 - Company command variant of BMP-1 with two R-123M radios.
 - BMP-1K3 - Battalion command variant of BMP-1 with one R-123M and one R-130M radio.
BMP-1KM - Improved command variant of BMP-1.
BMP-1PK - Command variant of BMP-1P for motorized rifle regiments, equipped with R-126, R-107 and two R-123M radios. It replaced the BMP-1K in serial production. The firing ports and periscopes on the right of the vehicle are blocked. Some IFVs are equipped with the GLONASS navigation system. Vehicles that are based on Ob'yekt 765Sp5 are sometimes called, in Western sources, "BMP-1PKM" or "BMP-1PMK" but those are not official Soviet designations. It has three sub-versions:
 - BMP-1PK1 - Platoon command variant of the BMP-1P.
 - BMP-1PK2 - Company command variant of the BMP-1P.
 - BMP-1PK3 - Battalion command variant of the BMP-1P with telescopic mast mounted on the right side at the rear of the vehicle.
BMP-1KSh (Ob'yekt 774, 9S743) (KSh stands for komandno-shtabnaya - command and staff) - Command and staff variant of the BMP-1 for motorized rifle and tank regiments with a TNA-3 gyroscopic navigation device, two R-111, one R-123MT and one R-130M additional radios as well as telegraph and telephone equipment. The armament was replaced by the AMU "Hawkeye" 10 m long telescopic mast and the turret was fixed. It also had a tubular case for the AMU "Hawkeye" antenna parts on the right rear of the vehicle, an AB-1P/30 1 kW box-shaped portable petrol-electric generator set at the center of the rear part of the hull's roof instead of two roof hatches (two roof hatches immediately behind the turret remain) and four elevatable whip antennas at the rear (two on the left and two on the right). The vehicle weighs 13 tonnes and has a crew of 3 + 4. It is armed with one 7.62 mm PKT machine gun. It officially entered service with the Soviet Army in 1972, production did not start until 1976. It saw service in Afghanistan and Chechnya. There were three variants of the BMP-1KSh, one being the "Potok"- 2, each had different additional equipment (including R-137 or R-140 or R-45 radios). NATO gave it the designation BMP M1978.
BMP-1KShM - Modernization of the BMP-1KSh, new improved navigational and radio equipment was installed. Visual differences between the BMP-1KSh and the BMP-1KShM are insignificant. It was widely used during counter-terrorism operations in Chechnya.
MP-31 (BMP-76) - Modification of the BMP-1KShM fitted with a more powerful 5 kW electric generator, additional antennae in the rear part of the hull as well as a gearbox installed on the left hand side, near the generator. It is used for artillery fire control. It is part of the PASUV "Manyevr" automated field air defense command set.
Combat reconnaissance
BRM-1 (Ob'yekt 676) - At the end of the 1960s, the Soviet Army started looking for a reconnaissance vehicle suited to the modern battlefield that could be fitted with extensive electronic reconnaissance equipment. Existing reconnaissance vehicles in the Soviet Army, such as the PT-76 amphibious light tank and the BRDM-2 amphibious armored scout car, were only equipped with standard vision devices. The BMP-1 was chosen as the platform for the new reconnaissance vehicle because it had an amphibious capability, good maneuverability, a powerful armament, a spacious hull and an NBC protection system. The development of the BMP-1-based reconnaissance vehicle began in the Chelyabinsk Tractor Works (ChTZ) in the 1960s and 1970s. It was later continued by the Kurgan Engineering Works (KMZ). As a result of that the new BRM-1 officially entered service with the Soviet Army in 1972, production began in 1973 when the first BRM-1s were passed to reconnaissance subunits. It was fitted with an extra-wide, low-profile, two-man turret which was moved to the rear of the hull and without the M3 autoloader and the 9S428 ATGM launcher (although some vehicles did have the ATGM launcher). There were also two small roof hatches, instead of four in the rear part of the hull. A PSNR-5K (1RL-133-1) "Tall Mike" ground surveillance radar which can be extended over the roof of the turret from a rearward-opening hatch in the roof of the turret, (the BRM-1 of the first series did not have ground surveillance radar), a 1D8 laser rangefinder, a TNA-1 or TNA-3 gyroscopic navigation device with coordinates recorder and additional R-123M, R-130M, R-148 and R-014D radios are all fitted. Radio range is up to 50 km with the use of a standard 4 m whip antenna and up to 300 km with the use of the radio mast transported on the rear of the hull. The PSNR-5K "Tall Mike" radar, which is operated by the commander, has two modes - terrain survey and target tracking. It can detect vehicles up to 7000 meters and personnel up to 2000 meters away and can be retracted into the turret when not in use. The doppler radar for range calculations was installed from 1993 onwards. One vehicle was assigned to each recce company of a motorized rifle, tank or artillery unit. The crew was increased from 3 to 6 (commander and gunner who occupy the turret, driver and navigator who occupy the nose section of the hull and two observers who occupy the rear part of the hull). Some vehicles were fitted with a bank of 81 mm 902V "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers. NATO gave it the designations BMP-R and BMP M1976/1.
BRM-1 - With its antennae relocated to the rear of the turret.
BRM-1K (BRM stands for boevaya razvedyvatel’naya mashina - Combat reconnaissance vehicle, K stands for komandirskaya - command) - An improved command variant of the BRM-1 was developed simultaneously with it. It has all the equipment and fittings of the BRM-1 plus a few new ones. It is fitted with a mast antenna and late production models have six 81 mm 902V "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers (three on each side). It is equipped with 50 mm flares which are used for battlefield illumination. The number of firing ports was reduced from eight to three (one on each side of the vehicle and one in the rear). It is equipped with a DKRM-1 laser rangefinder, an ERRS-1 radio direction finder, a PPChR radiological-chemical detection device, a WPChR military chemical detection device, an IMP-1 mine detector, and an AB-1-P 1 kW box-shaped portable petrol-electric generator. Day/night observation devices consist of thirteen TNPO-170As, one TNPK-240A, two TNPT-1s, two TVNE-1PAs and one pair of 1PN33B night binoculars. Navigation equipment includes a TNA-3 gyroscopic apparatus, a 1G11N gyro-compass and a 1T25 survey device. The BRM-1K entered service with the Soviet Army in 1972, production started in 1973. Ammunition carried was reduced to 20 rounds for the 73 mm 2A28 Grom low pressure smoothbore gun. The vehicle weighs 13.2 tonnes. NATO gave it the designation BMP M1976/2.
2S17-2 Nona-SV - Prototype Soviet 120 mm self-propelled gun based on the BRM-1K.
Artillery reconnaissance
PRP-3 "Val" (Ob'yekt 767, 1ZhZ) (PRP stands for podvizhnoy razvedyvatel’niy punkt - mobile reconnaissance post) - Is a BMP-1 converted into an artillery reconnaissance vehicle. It entered service with the Soviet Army in 1970 (production started in 1972 at the Kurgan Engineering Works and in 1979 at the Rubtsovsk Engineering Works). The vehicle was fitted with two R-123M or R-108 radios and optical devices which enabled it to function in the artillery/guided missile target indication, fire adjustment and/or artillery/mortar locating roles. It was armed with one PKT machine gun in a ball mount in front of the new, bigger, two-man turret which was positioned further back than in a normal BMP-1. The turret had two single-piece hatches which opened forward. Both hatches had periscopes for observation and a large optical device in front of each hatch. A shuttered housing held an optical device on the right hand side of the turret. It had a rectangular folding antenna for the 1RL126 "Small Fred" counterbattery/surveillance radar mounted in a circular hatch cover on the left of the rear of the turret which operated in the J-band and had a detection range of 20 km and a tracking range of 7 km. It also had 1V44/1G13M/1G25-1 navigational systems, a 1D6/D6M1 laser rangefinder, a 10P79 vision device, a 1PN29 night vision device and a 90 mm 2P130-1 launcher with 20 9M41 illumination missiles. The crew was increased from 3 to 5 men. One PRP was assigned to an artillery/guided missile battalion (towed or self-propelled) and to the target acquisition battery of an artillery regiment. It was also known as BMP-SON. NATO gave it the designation BMP M1975.
PRP-4 "Nard" (Ob'yekt 779, 1V121) The replacement for the PRP-3 "Val", it entered service with the Soviet Army in the 1980s. It was an improved PRP-3 with one 1A30M and two R-173 radios, a 1G25-1/1G13/KP-4 navigational system, a 1D11M-1 active pulsed laser range finder, a 1PN59 thermal vision device and a 1PN61 active pulsed night vision system fitted. A 1RL-133-1 "Tall Mike" retractable battlefield surveillance radar replaced the 1RL-126 "Small Fred" set. The vehicle was fitted with protected mountings on either side of the turret which house optical devices. The PRP-4 was also equipped with new electronic information processing equipment and a self-contained power supply which can be used while the vehicle is stationary. The 2P130-1 missile launcher was removed. The IFV was produced by the Rubtsovsk Engineering Works.
PRP-4M "Deyteriy" (Ob'yekt 779M, 1V145) - Was a modernized version of the PRP-4 "Nard" developed in 1988. It is equipped with a 1PN71 thermal infrared vision device (which gives the crew a range of up to 3,000 m), a 1D14 periscopic laser rangefinder, a 1D13 portable laser reconnaissance device and a turret antenna mount located on the center of the turret roof behind the radar hatch.
PRP-4M "Deyteriy" - Fitted with a fake gun mantlet and offset gun barrel to resemble a BMP-2.
PRP-4MU (Ob'yekt 508) - Is the latest serial upgrade with new equipment including a 1RL-133-3 retractable battlefield surveillance radar (with a detection range of up to 12,000 m), a 1D14 periscopic laser rangefinder (its detection range is up to 10,000 m) and T-235-1 U data transmitting equipment. Its left hand side optical housing flap is hinged at the top. The Rubtsovsk Engineering Works started to upgrade all vehicles of the PRP family to the level of the PRP-4MU from the 1980s. The PRP-4MU is used at regimental level. It can detect mobile and stationary targets by day or at night and under every meteorological condition.
Ammunition resupply
BMP-1PO (This is not an official Soviet designation)- Has ammunition racks inside the rear doors and the antenna mount moved forward.
Training
PPO-1 (PPO stands for podvizhnoy punkt obucheniya - mobile training post) - It is a BMP-1 converted into a driver training vehicle. It was developed by the CTZ design bureau. The turret has been removed and replaced by eight roof-mounted stations for the students under instruction, three down either side and two in the center. Each station is fitted with two TNPO-170 periscopes and a MK-4 sight, all of which are mounted in the forward part of the cupola, and an A-2 unit of the R-124 intercom (used via the two-way radio). The instructor has a console equipped with three cassette recorders, an AGU-10-3 amplifier, three switches, external loudspeakers and a microphone. During training each platoon is equipped with two standard BMP-1s and one PPO-1. The instructor and one of the trainees take turns to send information while rest of the trainees listen via the loudspeakers. It is also known under the designation BMP-PPO.
Armoured recovery
BREM-2 (BREM stands for bronirovannaya remonto-evakuatsionnaya mashina - armored maintenance-recovery vehicle) - The turret has been removed and replaced by an armored plate. The vehicle is fitted with a load platform with a capacity of 1.5 tonnes, a crane with a 1.5-tonne capacity (7 tonnes with additional outfit), which is placed on top of the hull and a pull winch with a 6.5-tonne capacity (19.5 tonnes with block pulley), which is placed inside. It also carries additional repair and recovery equipment on the top and sides of the hull. This equipment includes a tow bar, 200 meters of rope, heavy tools, electric welding equipment and excavating tools. There is a dozer blade at the front of the hull which is used to brace the BREM-2 while it is using its crane. The vehicle was developed in 1982. Its primary role of is the repair and recovery of IFVs from the BMP family of vehicles under field conditions. It is armed with a PKT machine gun for which it carries 1,000 rounds and has six 81 mm 902V "Tucha" smoke grenade launchers (in addition to the standard TDA thermal smoke generator). It weighs 13.6 tonnes and has a crew of three. Late BREM-2 ARVs have flotation sides-skirts/mudguards from the BMP-2. Some BMP-1s have been converted into BREM-2 ARVs by tank repair workshops of the Ministry of Defense from 1986 onwards.
BREM-Ch is the Soviet designation for the Czechoslovak-built VPV ARV, the design of which was inspired by the BREM-2. The unofficial designation BREM-4 is used in Soviet Army units which received Czechoslovak-made VPVs.
Combat engineer
IRM "Zhuk" [ru] (IRM stands for inzhenernaya razvedyvatel'naya mashina - engineer reconnaissance vehicle, "Zhuk" means Beetle) - All-terrain combat engineer vehicle for land and river reconnaissance, developed in the 1970s. Production started in 1980 with the use of components from both the BMP-1 and BMP-2. Fifty IRMs were produced from 1986. However, the suspension had a new hull, one extra road wheel and one additional hydraulic shock-absorber. It has four pressurized compartments, with the engine located at the rear. There are three hatches on the top of the hull and one emergency hatch in the bottom. The IRM is equipped with two retractable propellers in ring covers for swimming and steering and two cases with 16 9M39 solid engines (each has a thrust of 312 kg and weighs 6.3 kg), for getting out of mud. Special reconnaissance equipment consists of two R-147 radios; one PIR-451 periscope; TNPO-160, TNP-370 and TNV-25M periscopic observation devices; an AGI-1s horizon indicator; a DSP-30 portable periscopic rangefinder, a PAB-2M portable aiming circle, one TNA-3 gyroscopic navigational device, an EIR echo depth finder with automatic recorder and three sonar transducers, a RShM-2 river-type wide-span mine detector, RVM-2M and IMP-2 portable mine detectors, a PR-1 portable penetrometer used to analyze soil for crossability and an ice drill with ice stake. The vehicle has two arms for detecting metallic mines which are mounted on the front of the hull. They can be retracted when not in use. The mine detector arms can be hydraulically articulated to their operating position in under three minutes. The mine detector brings the vehicle to a full stop upon encountering an obstacle or detecting a metallic object. The PIR-451 periscope is mounted on the right hand side of the front of the vehicle, at the commander's station. It can be extended to 1.5 m and can move vertically up to 750 mm. The IRM also has an air revitalization system, automatic fire extinguishers, a water pump with a capacity of 1,000 L/min, an automatic NBC protection system and an engine thermal smoke generator. It weighs 17.2 tonnes and has a crew of six. It is 8.22 m long, 3.15 m wide and 2.40 m high. Ground clearance is 420 mm. It has a maximum road speed of 52 km/h and it can swim at up to 12 km/h. It is armed with a PKT machine gun fitted in a small turret for which it carries 1,000 rounds. In the west, the IRM was believed to be based on the 2S1 Gvozdika self-propelled howitzer until 1986 when its true origins became known.
IPR (IPR stands for inzhenerny podvodny razvedchik - engineer underwater scout) is a variant of the IRM "Zhuk" used for the reconnaissance of water barriers. It is equipped with a snorkel, a ballast tank in the nose section, two large and two small ballast tanks, and an air-locked tank for diving equipment which make it possible to perform underwater reconnaissance at a maximum operational depth of 8 m and at an all-up depth of 15 m. It was produced in small numbers by the "Muromteplovoz" Locomotive Works.

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