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Leopard 2 - ОБТ (Германия), продолжение

Armament

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The primary armament for production versions of the Leopard 2 is the Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore gun - the same gun later adapted for use on the M1 Abrams - in either the L/44 variant (found on all production Leopard 2s until the A5), or the L/55 variant (as found on the Leopard 2A6 and subsequent models). Ammunition for the gun comprises 27 rounds stored in a special magazine in the forward section of the hull, to the left of the driver's station, with an additional 15 rounds stored in the left side of the turret bustle, which are separated from the fighting compartment by an electrically operated door. If the ammunition storage area is hit, a blow-off panel in the turret roof would direct an explosion upwards away from the crew compartment. The gun is fully stabilised, and can fire a variety of types of rounds, such as the German DM43 APFSDS-T anti-tank round, which is said to be able to penetrate 560 millimeters (22 in) of steel armour at a range of 2,000 metres (2,200 yd), and the German DM12 High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT). For the L/55 gun, a newer APFSDS-T round was introduced to take advantage of the longer barrel, the DM-53, which is said to be able to penetrate 750 mm of RHAe armour at a range of 2,000 meters. The bore evacuator and the gun's thermal sleeve of the A4 and A5, designed to regulate the temperature of the barrel, are fabricated from glass-reinforced plastic. The barrel has a chrome lining to increase barrel life. The main gun is capable of power elevating from +20° to -9°.
Rheinmetall has developed an upgrade for Leopard 2 tanks to give them the ability to fire the Israeli LAHAT anti-tank guided missile through the main gun; the missile can engage targets out to a range of 6,000 metres (20,000 ft).
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The Leopard 2 is equipped with two machine guns, one mounted co-axially, the other on an anti-aircraft mount. German models use the MG 3 7.62 mm machine gun; Dutch and Singapore models use FN MAG 7.62 mm machine guns; Swiss models use Swiss MG 87 7.5 mm machine guns. 4750 rounds of machine gun ammunition are carried on board the Leopard 2. More recent variants such as the Leopard 2A7+ are capable of mounting a Remotely-Controlled Weapons Station fitted with a Browning M2HB Heavy Machine Gun, near to the commander's hatch.
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The standard fire control system found on the Leopard 2 is the German EMES 15 fire control system with a dual magnification stabilised primary sight. The primary sight has an integrated neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet Nd:YAG laser rangefinder and a 120 element Mercury cadmium telluride, HgCdTe (also known as CMT) Zeiss thermographic camera, both of which are linked to the tank's fire control computer. A backup 8x auxiliary telescope FERO-Z18 is mounted coaxially for the gunner. The commander has an independent periscope, the Rheinmetall/Zeiss PERI-R 17 A2. The PERI-R 17 A2 is a stabilised panoramic periscope sight designed for day/night observation and target identification; it provides an all round view with a traverse of 360°. The thermal image from the commander's periscope is displayed on a monitor inside the tank. Initial production tanks were not equipped with a thermal sight, due to the sight not being ready, and instead temporarily substituted the PZB 200 low light TV system (LLLTV).
The fire control suite is capable of providing up to three range values in four seconds. The range data is transmitted to the fire control computer and is used to calculate the firing solution. Also, because the laser rangefinder is integrated into the gunner's primary sight, the gunner is able to read the digital range measurement directly. The maximum range of the laser rangefinder is up to 10,000 m with a measuring accuracy within 10 m at this range. The combined system allows the Leopard 2 to engage moving targets at ranges of up to 5,000 meters whilst itself being on the move over rough terrain.

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The Leopard 2 is propelled by the MTU MB 873 Ka-501 engine, which provides 1,500 PS (1.1 MW) at 2600 RPM and 4,700 N⋅m (3,500 lb⋅ft) of torque at 1600-1700 RPM. The MTU MB 873 Ka-501 is a four-stroke, 47.7 litre, 90° V-block 12-cylinder, twin-turbocharged and intercooled, liquid-cooled diesel engine (with multi-fuel capability), which has an estimated fuel consumption rate of around 300 litres per 100 km on roads and 500 litres per 100 km across country, and is coupled to the Renk HSWL 354 gear and brake system. The Renk HSWL 354 transmission has four forward and two reverse gears, with a torque converter and is completely automatic, with the driver selecting the range. The Leopard 2 has four fuel tanks, which have a total capacity of approximately 1160 litres, giving a maximum road range of about 500 km. The propulsion pack is capable of driving the tank to a top road speed of 68 km/h (limited to 50 km/h during peacetime by law), and top reverse is 31 km/h. The power pack can be changed in the field in 35 minutes. The engine and transmission is separated from the crew compartment through a fireproof bulkhead. An enhanced version of the EuroPowerPack, with a 1,650 PS (1.2 MW) MTU MT883 engine has also been trialled by the Leopard 2.
The Leopard 2 has a torsion bar suspension and has advanced friction dampers. The running gear consists of seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels and four return rollers per side, with the idler wheel at the front and drive sprocket at the rear. The tracks are Diehl 570F tracks, with rubber-bushed end connectors, which have removable rubber pads and use 82 links on each track. For use in icy ground, up to 18 rubber pads can be replaced by the same number of grousers, which are stored in the vehicle's bow when not in use. The upper part of the tracks are covered with side skirts.
The Leopard 2 can drive through water 4 meters (13 ft) deep using a snorkel or 1.2 meters (3 ft 11 in) without any preparation. It can climb vertical obstacles over one metre high.
The German Army has prioritised mobility in its Leopard 2, which might be the fastest main battle tank in the world.

Variant`S

Leopard 2
The baseline Leopard 2, sometimes informally called the "A0" to differentiate it from later versions, was the first series manufactured version. The vehicles were manufactured from October 1979 until March 1982, altogether 380 vehicles. 209 were built by Krauss Maffei and 171 by MaK. The basic equipment consisted of electrical-hydraulic stabiliser WNA-H22, a fire control computer, a laser rangefinder, a wind sensor, a general-purpose telescope EMES 15, a panorama periscope PERI R17, the gunner's primary sight FERO Z18, on the turret roof as well as a computer-controlled tank testing set RPP 1-8. 200 of the vehicles had a low-light enhancer (PZB 200) instead of thermal imaging. Two chassis served as driver training vehicles.
Leopard 2A1
Minor modifications and the installation of the gunner's thermal sight were worked into the second batch of 450 vehicles Leopard 2, designated the A1. Krauss-Maffei built 248 (Chassis Nr. 10211 to 10458) and Mak built 202 (Chassis Nr. 20173 to 20347). Deliveries of the 2A1 models started in March 1982 and ended in November 1983. The two most notable changes were the modification of the ammunition racks to be identical to those in the M1A1 Abrams, and redesigned fuel filters that reduce refuelling time.
A third batch of 300 Leopard 2, 165 by Krauss-Maffei (Chassis Nr. 10459 to 10623) and 135 by MaK (Chassis Nr. 20375 to 20509.), was built between November 1983 and November 1984. This batch included more minor changes that were later retrofitted to the earlier 2A1s.
Leopard 2A2
This designation was given to upgraded vehicles of the first batch of Leopard 2s, brought up to the standard of the second and third batches. This modernisation gradually replaced the original PZB 200 sights in the first batch with thermal sights for the EMES 15 as they became available. Furthermore, the upgrade included the fitting of filler openings and caps to the forward hull fuel tanks to allow separate refuelling, as well as the addition of a deflector plate for the periscope and a large coverplate to protect the existing NBC protection system. Finally, the tank was given new five metre towing cables with a different position. The programme began in 1984 and ended in 1987; the third, fourth and fifth batches, which were produced during this period, had the same features. The modernised first batch can be recognised by the circular plate covering the hole where the cross-wind sensor for the fire-control system was removed.
Leopard 2A3
The fourth batch of 300 vehicles, 165 by Krauss-Maffei (Chassis Nr. 10624 to 10788) and 135 by Mak (Chassis Nr. 20510 to 20644), was delivered between December 1984 and December 1985. The main change was the addition of the SEM80/90 digital radio sets (also being fitted to the Leopard 1 at the same time), and the ammunition reloading hatches being welded shut. Even with these minor changes the new batch was known as the 2A3.
Leopard 2A4
The most widespread version of the Leopard 2 family, the 2A4 models included more substantial changes, including an automated fire and explosion suppression system, an all-digital fire control system able to handle new ammunition types, and an improved turret with flat titanium/tungsten armour. The Leopard 2s were manufactured in eight batches between 1985 and 1992. All the older models were upgraded to 2A4 standard. Until 1994, Germany operated a total of 2,125 2A4s (695 newly built and the rest modified older versions), while the Netherlands had an additional 445 tanks. The 2A4 was also license manufactured in Switzerland as the Panzer 87 "Leopard" or Pz 87. This version included Swiss-built 7.5 mm MG 87 machine guns and communications equipment, and featured improved NBC protection system. Switzerland operated 380 Pz 87 tanks.
After 2000, Germany and the Netherlands found themselves with large stocks of tanks that they had no need for after the Cold War. These tanks were sold to NATO or friendly armies around the world. Among these buyers of the surplus tanks were Turkey (purchasing 354 vehicles), Greece (183), Sweden (160), Chile (140), Finland (139), Poland (128), Austria (114), Spain (108), Canada (107), Indonesia (103), Singapore (96), Norway (52), Denmark (51), and Portugal (37).
The Pz 87WE (WertErhaltung) is a planned Swiss modification and upgrade of the Pz 87. The modification significantly improves protection through the addition of the Leopard 2A6M's mine protection kit, thicker armour on the front glacis, and a turret equipped with a Swiss-developed armour package using titanium alloy. The turret roof armour is improved and the smoke grenade launchers redesigned. Further improvements enhance survivability and combat capability, such as a turret electric drive similar to the Leopard 2A5, a driver rear-view camera, an independent weapons station for the loader, and enhanced command and control systems. The fire control system is also upgraded, using the Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH PERI-R17A2 fire control system. A remote weapons station containing a fully stabilised Mg 64 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine gun is also fitted to the tank.
The Leopard 2 Revolution/Leopard 2 RI is an upgraded variant from Rheinmetall for the Leopard 2 tank purchased by Indonesia. In general, this variant has capabilities equivalent to the Leopard 2 A7 variant.
The Pz 87-140 is an experimental variant of the Swiss Pz 87 with a 140 mm gun and additional armour, which was later used on the newer production variants.
The Leopard 2A4CHL is the upgraded Chilean version of the Leopard 2A4 ordered by Chile in 2007. Upgrades include new electronics, sighting and information systems meant to elevate the Leopard 2A4's networking capability to be equal to that of the Leopard 2A6, a new suspension system and the upgrading of the tanks main gun to the L/55 smoothbore cannon used on the Leopard 2A6. Other upgrades are remote weapon stations over the gunner and commander hatches fitted with the MG3 and HK GMG. The Leopard 2A4CHL also has improved roof and side turret armour and can be uplinked with Chile's battlefield control network.
The Leopard 2A4M CAN is the upgraded Canadian version of the Leopard 2A4 acquired from the Royal Netherlands Army surplus. The Leopard 2A4M CAN is specially designed for the war in Afghanistan, based on experience gained by Leopard 2 operators. The first 20 were delivered in October 2010; of which just five were deployed to Afghanistan at the end of 2010 and operated until July 2011, when combat operations stopped. Though originally planned to be up-gunned to the L/55 for consistency with the 2A6M CAN, the longer barrelled guns (optimised for tank-vs-tank warfare) were found to be less than ideal in Afghanistan, therefore it was decided to retain the L/44. In addition, only small areas of slat armour were added, in contrast with the fully caged 2A6M CANs. The protection of the Leopard 2A4M CAN has been further augmented by the addition of applique armour resembling that found on the most recent Leopard 2A7+ variant, but modified to fit the turret configuration of the 2A4. Of the 2A4s acquired, 11 were converted for training use (9 A4s, 2 A4Ms). In February 2011, Canada bought 12 2A4s/Pz 87 from Switzerland for the 'Force Mobility Enhancement' project which, along with the remaining unused ex-Dutch tanks, saw 18 converted to Armoured Engineering Vehicles and 4 converted to Armoured Recovery Vehicles. Canada has also purchased 15 2A4s from Germany as Logistic Stock Vehicles (for spare parts).
The Leopard 2NG (Next Generation) is a privately funded Turkish upgrade by ASELSAN that includes the application of modular composite armour (AMAP), upgraded optics, completely overhauled turret mechanics and a new fire control system on the work since 1995 and to be delivered by late 2011, which is intended to be used on the new Altay MBT. It was developed without an order of the Turkish Army, but might meet the requirements for the modernization of the Turkish Leopard 2A4s. The old powerpack and the L/44 gun barrel are kept, but the combat weight is increased to 65 tonnes. According to Turkish news sources, Finland was interested in getting the Turkish upgrade package to modernise their fleet of Leopard 2A4s. However, in 2015 Finland purchased 120 2A6 vehicles from the Netherlands.
The Leopard 2 hull was also used for the Vickers Mk 7 main battle tank, which featured a British-designed turret, where some of the innovations later were incorporated into the Challenger 2 design.
In December 2015, Bumar-Łabędy signed an agreement with German Rheinmetall Landsysteme Gmbh concerning the technological support of the Polish modernization program for Leopard 2A4 tanks. The company will design, document and execute six prototypes. The first upgraded Leopard 2PLs have arrived in Poland in June 2020, with all 142 tanks to be delivered by 2023. The upgrades include third generation night vision systems (production of the Warsaw PCO), new additional armor modules and anti-splash lining, removal of flammable components (turret drive system and main propulsion system), installation of new fire protection system, modernization of the tank's integrated monitoring and testing equipment, Possibility of using new types of ammunition (programmable DM-11 and DM-63), auxiliary generator set (APU). Construction of all 142 units will be completed by the end of 2020.
Turkey is planning to modernize its Leopard 2A4 MBTs with the T1 Modernization Package. According to the Defense Industry Presidency, Leopard 2A4 tanks will be modernized with; Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA), T1 Reactive-Passive Armor, High Ballistic Strength Cage Armor, Hollow Modular Add-on Armor, Close Range Surveillance System (YAMGÖZ), Laser Warning Receiver System (LIAS), SARP Remote Controlled Weapon System (UKSS), PULAT Active Protection System (AKS), a new power distribution unit, ASELSAN Driver Surveillance System (ADİS) and voice alert system integrations. The modernization programme is to be completed in 2 batches. The programme will start with 84 Leopard 2A4 tanks in the first batch and the remaining tanks will be modernized within the 2nd batch. Total amount of 334 tanks (including prototypes) are planned to be upgraded with the T1 modernization programme.
Leopard 2 Marksman
Finland has modernised its Marksman SPAAG vehicles by replacing the original T-55AM chassis with a newer Leopard 2A4 chassis. The upgraded Marksman vehicles were scheduled to enter service with the Finnish Army in 2016. The new Leopard 2 chassis greatly improves mobility compared to the older T-55AM chassis, both on- and off-road. The Leopard 2 chassis is also larger, thus providing a more stable firing platform for the Marksman turret to operate from.
Leopard 2 Imp
"Leopard 2 Improved" was a prototype-series for enhancing the A4, introducing a wedge-shaped, spaced add-on armour to the turret front and the frontal area of the sides. These spaced armour modules defeat a hollow charge prior to reaching the base armour, and causes kinetic-energy penetrators to change direction, eroding them in the process; it does not form a shot-trap, since it does not deflect the penetrators outwards to hit the hull or turret ring. The gun mantlet was redesigned to accept the new armour.
Leopard 2A5
From the Leopard 2 Imp was then developed into the A5. There were also some improvements in the main armour composition. The interior received spall liners to reduce fragments if the armour is penetrated. The frontal "heavy" third of the side skirts was replaced with a stronger type. The commander's sight was moved to a new position behind the hatch and it received an independent thermal channel. The gunner's sight was moved to the turret roof as opposed to the cavity in the front armour in previous models. A heavier sliding driver's hatch was fitted. Turret controls went all-electric, increasing reliability and crew safety, as well as weight savings. The gun braking system was improved to prepare for the later mounting of the new L/55 gun tube and to enable firing of more powerful ammunition, such as the DM53 APFSDS. The first A5s were handed over to the German army tank school in 1995 and started to enter regular service with Panzerbataillon 33 in December the same year.
The Leopard 2A5 DK is a variant of the Leopard 2A5 similar to the Leopard 2A6 with some small modifications, used by the Danish Army.
Stridsvagn 122
Also based on the Leopard 2 Improved, Stridsvagn 122 is a Swedish Army tank with 120 units built, 91 of which were licence-produced in Sweden. The tank features increased armour on the turret top and front hull, and improved command-, control- and fire-control systems. Externally, it can be distinguished from the Leopard 2A5 by the French GALIX smoke dispensers, different storage bins, and the much thicker crew hatches. The Strv 122B, a variant equipped with modular AMAP composite armour from IBD Deisenroth, has increased 360° protection against threats like EFPs, RPGs and IEDs. The width of 4 metres (13 ft) has been kept, while the weight increases by only 350 kilograms (770 lb).
Leopard 2-140
In the early 1990s, Rheinmetall began development of a 140 mm smoothbore cannon for use in future tank designs. The new gun was intended to counter new Soviet tank developments, especially since the next generation of Soviet main battle tanks were rumoured to be armed with a 135 mm or 152 mm cannon. The new 140 mm cannon was part of a modernisation programme for the Leopard 2 known as the KWS III. Test firing of the new 140 mm cannon was conducted. Results showed that the gun had high penetration values, and had a muzzle velocity of around 2000 metres a second, with potential to be increased further. However, the 140 mm rounds were too heavy for the tank crew to handle effectively.
The KWS III upgrade was to feature a new turret. This new turret was equipped with the planned 140 mm cannon and an autoloader. The introduction of an autoloader reduced the tank's crew to three members, as a dedicated loader was no longer needed. The gun's 32 rounds of ammunition were stored separate from the crew in a large compartment occupying the entire rear of the turret, in order to increase crew survivability in the event of a cook off. The turntable-style turret had the gun offset to the left side, due to the autoloader's lateral feeding of ammunition into the cannon breech. The turret was powered by an electro-hydraulic drive and also featured an IFIS battlefield management system. The crew was protected by an armoured capsule and ballistic protection for the hull was to be improved; planned protection level of the KWS III upgrade was to be equal to or better than the Leopard 2A5.
A total of 650 Leopard 2 KWS III tanks were originally projected to be purchased. However, in 1995, the KWS III programme was cancelled due to changes in the political environment.
Despite this, development still continued on the 140 mm cannon, with Rheinmetall coordinating with the British Royal Ordnance and French GIAT companies. The 140 mm cannon was fitted to an old Leopard 2 prototype with the turret T19. Counterweights were added to the rear of the turret to balance the increased weight of the 140 mm cannon; however, the modified Leopard 2 was not equipped with any other KWS III upgrades apart from the new gun. Live fire testing showed mixed results, where the 140 mm cannon showed superior penetrating power compared to the existing 120 mm cannon, but also demonstrated poorer handling characteristics. The lack of the autoloader on the prototype further hampered performance.
Leopard 2A6
The Leopard 2A6 includes the addition of the Rheinmetall 120 mm L/55 smoothbore gun and other changes. All German tank battalions of the "crisis intervention forces" are equipped with the A6. Canada purchased 20 Leopard 2A6s from the Netherlands. These were delivered in 2007. Portugal also purchased 37 Leopard 2A6 from the Dutch in 2007, with delivery in 2008. In January 2014, Finland purchased 100 L2A6s, as well as munitions, simulators, and a ten-year supply of reserve parts from the Netherlands. The tanks were delivered in batches between 2015-2019.
The Leopard 2A6M is a version of the 2A6 with enhanced mine protection under the chassis, and internal enhancements to improve crew survivability. In the summer of 2007, Canada borrowed 20 A6Ms from Germany for deployment to Afghanistan. The Leopard 2 Hel is a derivative of the 2A6 that was ordered by the Greek Army in 2003 - the "Hel" stands for "Hellenic". The 170 tanks were to be delivered between 2006 and 2009. A total of 140 will be built in Greece by ELBO, which delivered the first units in late 2006.
The Leopard 2A6M CAN is a Canadian variant of the Leopard 2A6M. Significant modifications include distinctive black boxes mounted on the rear of the turret bustle, and stand-off slat armour. The first tanks configured in this variant were 20 loaned from the German Bundeswehr in an effort to increase firepower and protection given to Canadian troops operating in the south of Afghanistan. The loaned tanks retain their German MG3 machine guns, the ex-Dutch tanks are also expected to retain their FN MAG machine guns due to commonality with Canadian stocks of C6 GPMG, itself a variant of the FN MAG. Due to the loaned status of the first 20 tanks, the air conditioning unit originally could not be installed as only minimal changes could be made (the crew wore cooling vests instead, and the turret's electric drive generates less heat than the hydraulic drive of the older Leopard C2). The loaned German tanks will be kept by the Canadian Forces and may be further upgraded, while ex-Dutch Leopard 2A6s were modified to German Leopard 2A6M specifications and used as restitution for the loaned tanks. Canadian Leopard 2s in Afghanistan were later fitted with air conditioning units (a much needed commodity in the scorching desert of Afghanistan) and Saab's Barracuda camouflage mats, which also serve to reduce solar loading by 50 percent.
The Leopard 2A6TR was the Turkish variant during Turkish Army tank procurement project in 2000. The version was based on 2A6EX. The project was dropped in favor of developing indigenous Altay tank.
Leopard 2E
The Leopard 2E is a derivative of the 2A6, with greater armour protection, developed under a programme of co-production between the defence industries of Spain and Germany. The programme was developed within the frame of collaboration decided in 1995 between the Defence Ministries of both countries, in which also was included the cession of use by a period of five years of 108 Leopard 2A4 from the German Army to the Spanish Army. However, this cession was extended up to 2016, and after that those tanks will be the sole property of the Spanish Army, as has been made public on 24 January 2006, then having been paid a total of 15,124,014 euros in ten yearly installments, giving the Spanish co-ownership from 2006. In 1998, the Spanish government agreed to contract 219 tanks of the Leopard 2E line, 16 recovery tanks Leopard 2ER (Bufalo) and 4 training vehicles. They chose Santa Bárbara Sistemas as the main contractor. The programme, with a budget of 1,939.4 million Euros, also includes the integrated logistical support, training courses for crew instructors and maintenance engineers and driving, turret, maintenance, aiming and shooting simulators. Deliveries of the first batch began in 2004.
Leopard 2PL
The Leopard 2PL is a Polish modernized version of the Leopard 2A4, carried out in cooperation with Rheinmetall and the Polish Armaments Group (pol. Polska Grupa Zbrojeniowa PGZ). The Leopard 2PL MBT is primarily tasked with assault, maintaining territory, and supporting mechanized and motorized subdivisions with its on-board weapon systems in all weather conditions during the day and night. The main upgrades when compared to the Leopard 2A4 include: modernization of the commander's and gunner's sight, additional ballistic modules on the turret, replacement of the hydraulic stabilization system to new electric system, installation of modernized Fire Extinguishing and new Fire Suppression systems, installation of a new commander's control and monitoring system, installation of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), new turret stowage compartment for crew equipment, modernization of its main gun to use new types of programmable ammunition, and the integration of day/night rear camera for drivers. Also included are customized towing vehicles due to the increased weight of the upgraded tank. The upgraded 2PL version is already in service with the Polish Land Forces. Of the Leopard 2A4s from the first (128) and the second (14) batches, 24 have been upgraded to Leopard 2PL standard. The rest will be upgraded to the 2PLM1 standard.
Leopard 2 PSO
The new Leopard 2 PSO (Peace Support Operations) variant is designed specially for urban warfare, which had been encountered in peacekeeping operations with increasing frequency. Therefore, the Leopard 2 PSO is equipped with more effective all-around protection, a secondary weapons station, improved reconnaissance ability, a bulldozer blade, a shorter gun barrel (for manoeuvring on urban streets at the expense of fire range), non-lethal armament, close-range surveillance ability (through camera systems), a searchlight and further changes to improve its perseverance and mobility in a built-up non-wide open area. These features are similar to the Tank Urban Survival Kit for the American M1A2 Abrams.
Leopard 2A7
The Leopard 2A7 is fundamentally different from the KMW variant 2A7+ and is not optimised for combat in urban terrain. A total of 20 vehicles are provided for converting. It involves former Dutch A6NL models returned by Canada to Germany. The original upgrade to A6M has been extended in coordination with Canada and includes a crew-compartment cooling-system from the Leopard 2 A6M-HEL series, a new 20 kW auxiliary power unit based on the Steyr Motors M12 TCA UI engine, the Saab Barracuda Mobile Camouflage System (MCS) with Heat-Transfer Reduction (HTR CoolCam) system, a field trial proven combat management and information system (IFIS: Integriertes Führungs- und Informationssystem), onboard network optimization with ultracapacitors in the chassis and turret, a SOTAS IP digital intercom system, a renewal of the fire suppression system in the crew compartment, and the retrofitting of Attica thermal imaging module in the commander optics. The weapon system is adapted for firing HE ammunition. It is also fitted for, but not with, additional passive side protection armour. The first Leopard 2A7 was handed over to the German Army in Munich on 10 December 2014. A total of 14 vehicles were produced for Tank Battalion 203, plus four more going to the Armoured Corps Training Centre and one vehicle at the Technical School for Land Systems and School for Technology of the Army. The last tank remains as a reference vehicle at KMW. The tank also features a completely new armour package that features Tungsten, Titanium as well as Nano-Ceramics. The estimated armour protection for the hull is around ~620 mm RHAe KE and near ~1000 mm RHAe KE for the turret.
The Danish Armed Forces received its first Leopard 2A7 main battle tanks upgraded in Germany from the Leopard 2A5DK version at the Dragoon Barracks in Holstebro. The Danish Army will receive a total of 44 Leopard 2A7 vehicles by 2022.
Siemon T. Wezeman, senior researcher at SIPRI’s arms transfers and military expenditure programme, stated that information from the UN Register of Conventional Arms 2016, indicated that some Leopard 2A7s were transferred to Singapore after 2014. SIPRI reported that the Singapore Army probably acquired a total of 45 Leopard 2A7s between 2016-2019, but the Singapore's Ministry of Defence denied having acquired the 2A7 version, presumably to minimise anxiety among her neighbors.
Leopard 2A7+
The Leopard 2A7+ was first shown to the public during the Eurosatory 2010, featuring the label "Developed by KMW - tested and qualified by the German Ministry of Defence". The Leopard 2A7+ has been tested by the Bundeswehr under the name UrbOp (urban operations).
The Leopard 2A7+ is designed to operate both in low intensity and high intensity conflicts. The tank's protection has been increased by modular armour; the frontal protection has been improved with a dual-kit on the turret and hull front, while 360° protection against RPGs and mine protection increase the survivability of the tank in urban operations. The modular armour's system components were first used by Canada in Afghanistan. It can fire programmable HE munitions and the turret mounted MG3 has been replaced with a stabilised FLW 200 remotely controlled weapon station. The mobility, sustainability and situational awareness have also been improved.
In December 2018, Hungary ordered 44 2A7+s, making them the second operator of the improved version, after Qatar.

Engineering and driver training tanks

Bergepanzer BPz3 Büffel (Gr. Buffalo)
The BPz3 armoured recovery vehicle includes both a bulldozer and a crane with integral winch, allowing it to approach damaged vehicles, even over rough and fought-over terrain, and tow them to safety. It is equipped with a machine gun for local self-defence, a smoke grenade launcher, and NBC protection. Like the tank, it is powered by a 1,500 PS (1,479 hp, 1,103 kW) diesel engine. It is in service with Germany (where it is also designated Büffel or Bergepanzer 3 for Salvage Tank 3), the Netherlands (who co-developed it and call it Buffel), Austria, Canada, Greece, Singapore (where it is called L2-ARV locally), Spain (where it is called Leopard 2ER Búfalo), Sweden (in modified form as the Bgbv 120), and Switzerland (BPz3).
Panzerschnellbrücke 2
This vehicle, created by MAN Mobile Bridges GmbH, is an armoured vehicle-launched bridge developed from the Leopard 2 tank chassis. It is designed to carry a folding mobile bridge, which it can "launch" across a river. Once emplaced, the bridge is sturdy enough to support most vehicles, even other Leopard tanks. When the crossing is complete, the bridge-layer simply hooks up to the bridge and re-stows it.
Panzerschnellbrücke Leguan
This modular system combines a bridge module created by MAN Mobile Bridges GmbH with a tank chassis. The Bundeswehr is testing the Leguan on Leopard 2 chassis.
AEV 3 Kodiak
The AEV 3 Kodiak is a combat engineering vehicle conversion of the Leopard 2 used by the Netherlands, Singapore, Sweden and Switzerland. It is equipped with a bulldozer blade, excavator arm, and dual capstan winches. In lieu of a turret, a Remote Weapon Station or other armament can be fitted. It is built on the Leopard 2 chassis with a built-up forward superstructure. The vehicle is used primarily for the clearance of obstacles (including minefields). The Dutch version has additional bomblet protection for the crew compartments. Spain may procure 24 examples for the Spanish Army from converted Leopard 2A4 hulls (one vehicle has been trialled in Spain) and the type will be offered to Germany.
Driver Training Tank (Fahrschulpanzer)
The Leopard 2 Driver Training Tank, as the name implies, is a non-combatant Leopard 2 for instructing soldiers in the finer points of handling the tank. The turret is supplanted by a weighted and fixed observation cab with forward and side-facing windows and a dummy gun. The instructor rides in this cab, with override controls for critical systems, and space is provided for two other students to observe.
Leopard 2R
Heavy mine breaching vehicle developed by Patria for the Finnish Army, based on the Leopard 2A4. Ten vehicles were converted. The vehicles are equipped with a mine-plough or a dozer blade, and an automated marking system.
Leopard 2L
Armoured vehicle-launched bridge developed by KMW and Patria for the Finnish Army. Ten Finnish 2A4 tanks were re-built to carry the LEGUAN bridge.
WISENT 2
Multi-purpose, Leopard 2-based Armoured Support Vehicle developed by Flensburger Fahrzeugbau. The vehicle's modular design allows it to be converted quickly from an Armoured Recovery Vehicle (ARV) to an Armoured Engineer Vehicle (AEV) in less than five hours.

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