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M1 Abrams - ОБТ (США), продолжение

M1 Abrams - ...ПРОДОЛЖЕНИЕ



M68A1 rifled gun
The main armament of the original model M1 and M1IP was the M68A1 105 mm rifled tank gun firing a variety of armor-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot, high-explosive anti-tank, high explosive, white phosphorus rounds and an anti-personnel (multiple flechette) round. This gun used a license-made tube of the British Royal Ordnance L7 gun together with the vertical sliding breech block and other parts of the U.S. T254E2 prototype gun. However, it proved to be inadequate; a cannon with lethality beyond the 1.9-mile (3 km) range was needed to combat newer armor technologies. To attain that lethality, the projectile diameter needed to be increased. The tank was able to carry 55 105 mm rounds, with 44 stored in the turret blow-out compartment and the rest in hull stowage.
M256 smoothbore gun
The main armament of the M1A1 and M1A2 is the M256A1 120 mm smoothbore gun, designed by Rheinmetall AG of Germany, manufactured under license in the U.S. by Watervliet Arsenal, New York. The M256A1 is an improved variant of the Rheinmetall 120 mm L/44 gun carried on the German Leopard 2 on all variants up to the Leopard 2A5, the difference being in thickness and chamber pressure. Leopard 2A6 replaced the L/44 barrel with a longer L/55. Due to the increased caliber, only 40 or 42 rounds are able to be stored depending on if the tank is an A1 or A2 model.
Elevation: -9 to +20 degree
The M256A1 fires a variety of rounds. The primary APFSDS round of the Abrams is the depleted uranium M829 round, of which four variants have been designed. M829A1, known as the "Silver Bullet", saw widespread service in the Gulf War, where it proved itself against Iraqi armor such as the T-72. The M829A2 APFSDS round was developed specifically as an immediate solution to address the improved protection of a Russian T-72, T-80U or T-90 main battle tank equipped with Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armor (ERA) as previous rounds were found to be incapable of defeating such armor.
Later, the M829A3 round was introduced to improve its effectiveness against next generation ERA equipped tanks, through usage of a multi-material penetrator and increased penetrator diameter that can resist the shear effect of K-5 type ERA. As a counter to that, the Russian army introduced Relikt, the most modern Russian ERA, which is claimed to be twice as effective as Kontakt-5. Development of the M829 series is continuing with the M829A4 currently entering production, featuring advanced technology such as data-link capability.
The Abrams also fires high-explosive anti-tank warhead shaped charge rounds such as the M830, the latest version of which (M830A1) incorporates a sophisticated multi-mode electronic sensing fuse and more fragmentation that allows it to be used effectively against armored vehicles, personnel, and low-flying aircraft. The Abrams uses a manual loader, who also provides additional support for maintenance, observation post/listening post (OP/LP) operations, and other tasks.
The new M1028 120 mm anti-personnel canister cartridge was brought into service early for use in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It contains 1,098 3⁄8-inch (9.5 mm) tungsten balls that spread from the muzzle to produce a shotgun effect lethal out to 600 meters (2,000 ft). The tungsten balls can be used to clear enemy dismounts, break up hasty ambush sites in urban areas, clear defiles, stop infantry attacks and counter-attacks and support friendly infantry assaults by providing covering fire. The canister round is also a highly effective breaching round and can level cinder block walls and knock man-sized holes in reinforced concrete walls for infantry raids at distances up to 75 meters (246 ft).
Also in use is the M908 obstacle-reduction round. It is designed to destroy obstacles and barriers. The round is a modified M830A1 with the front fuse replaced by a steel nose to penetrate into the obstacle before detonation.
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) conducted a thermal analysis of the M256 from 2002 to 2003 to evaluate the potential of using a hybrid barrel system that would allow for multiple weapon systems such as the XM1111 Mid-Range munition, airburst rounds, or XM 1147. The test concluded that mesh density (number of elements per unit area) impacts accuracy of the M256 and specific densities would be needed for each weapon system.
In 2013 the Army was developing a new round to replace the M830/M830A1, M1028, and M908. Called the Advanced Multi-Purpose (AMP) round, it will have point detonation, delay, and airburst modes through an ammunition data-link and a multi-mode, programmable fuse in a single munition. Having one round that does the job of four would simplify logistics and be able to be used on a variety of targets. The AMP is to be effective against bunkers, infantry, light armor, and obstacles out to 500 meters, and will be able to breach reinforced concrete walls and defeat ATGM teams from 500 to 2,000 meters. Orbital ATK was awarded a contract to begin the first phase of development for the AMP XM1147 High-Explosive Multi-Purpose with Tracer cartridge in October 2015.
In addition to these, the XM1111 (Mid-Range-Munition Chemical Energy) was also in development. The XM1111 was a guided munition using a dual-mode seeker that combined imaging-infrared and semi-active laser guidance. The MRM-CE was selected over the competing MRM-KE, which used a rocket-assisted kinetic energy penetrator. The CE variant was chosen due to its better effects against secondary targets, providing a more versatile weapon. The Army hoped to achieve IOC with the XM1111 by 2013. However, the Mid-Range Munition was cancelled in 2009 along with Future Combat Systems.
The Abrams tank has three machine guns, with an optional fourth:
A .50 cal. (12.7 mm) M2HB machine gun in front of the commander's hatch. On the M1 and M1A1, this gun is mounted on the Commander's Weapons Station. This allows the weapon to be aimed and fired from within the tank. Normal combat loadout for the M1A1 is a single 100-round box of ammo at the weapon, and another 900 rounds carried. The later M1A2 variant had a "flex" mount that required the tank commander to expose his or her upper torso in order to fire the weapon. In urban environments in Iraq, this was found to be unsafe. With the Common Remote Operated Weapons System (CROWS) add-on kit, an M2A1 .50 Caliber Machine gun, M240, or M249 SAW can be mounted on a CROWS remote weapons platform (similar to the Protector M151 remote weapon station used on the Stryker family of vehicles). Current variants of the Tank Urban Survival Kit (TUSK) on the M1A2 have forgone this, instead adding transparent gun shields to the commander's weapon station. The upgrade variant called the M1A1 Abrams Integrated Management (AIM) equips the .50 caliber gun with a thermal sight for accurate night and other low-visibility shooting.
A 7.62 mm M240 machine gun in front of the loader's hatch on a skate mount (seen at right). Some of these were fitted with gun shields during the Iraq War, as well as night-vision scopes for low-visibility engagements and firing. This gun can be moved to the TC's position if the M2 .50 cal is damaged.
A second 7.62 mm M240 machine gun in a coaxial mount (i.e., it points at the same targets as the main gun) to the right of the main gun. The coaxial MG is aimed and fired with the same computerized firing control system used for the main gun. On earlier M1 and M1A1s, 3000 rounds are carried, all linked together and ready to fire. In later models, this was reduced slightly to make room for new system electronics. A typical 7.62 mm combat loadout is between 10,000 and 14,000 rounds carried on each tank.
(Optional) A second coaxial .50 cal. (12.7 mm) M2HB machine gun can be mounted directly above the main gun in a remote weapons platform as part of the CSAMM (Counter Sniper Anti Material Mount) package.
The Abrams is equipped with a ballistic fire-control computer that uses user and system-supplied data from a variety of sources to compute, display, and incorporate the three components of a ballistic solution - lead angle, ammunition type, and range to the target - to accurately fire the main gun. These three components are determined using a laser rangefinder, crosswind sensor, a pendulum static cant sensor, data concerning performance and flight characteristics of each specific type of round, tank-specific boresight alignment data, ammunition temperature, air temperature, barometric pressure, a muzzle reference system (MRS) that determines and compensates for barrel drop at the muzzle due to gravitational pull and barrel heating due to firing or sunlight, and target speed determined by tracking rate tachometers in the Gunner's or Commander's Controls Handles.
All of these factors are computed into a ballistic solution and updated 30 times per second. The updated solution is displayed in the Gunner's or Tank Commander's field of view in the form of a reticle in both day and Thermal modes. The ballistic computer manipulates the turret and a complex arrangement of mirrors so that all one has to do is keep the reticle on the target and fire to achieve a hit. Proper lead and gun tube elevation are applied to the turret by the computer, greatly simplifying the job of the gunner.
The fire-control system uses this data to compute a firing solution for the gunner. The ballistic solution generated ensures a hit percentage greater than 95 percent at nominal ranges. Either the commander or gunner can fire the main gun. Additionally, the Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer (CITV) on the M1A2 can be used to locate targets and pass them on for the gunner to engage while the commander scans for new targets.
If the primary sight system malfunctions or is damaged, the main and coaxial weapons can be manually aimed using a telescopic scope boresighted to the main gun known as the Gunner's Auxiliary Sight (GAS). The GAS has two interchangeable reticles; one for high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) and multi-purpose anti-tank (MPAT) ammunition and one for armor-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) and Smart Target-Activated Fire and Forget (STAFF) ammunition. Turret traverse and main gun elevation can be performed with manual handles and cranks if the fire control or hydraulic systems fail.
The commander's M2HB .50 caliber machine gun on the M1 and M1A1 is aimed by a 3× magnification sight incorporated into the Commander's Weapon Station (CWS), while the M1A2 uses the machine gun's own iron sights, or a remote aiming system such as the Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) system when used as part of the Tank Urban Survival Kit (TUSK). The loader's M240 machine gun is aimed either with the built-in iron sights or with a thermal scope mounted on the machine gun.
In late 2017, the 400 USMC M1A1 Abrams were to be upgraded with better and longer-range sights on the Abrams Integrated Display and Targeting System (AIDATS) replacing the black-and-white camera view with a color sight and day/night thermal sight, simplified handling with a single set of controls, and a slew to cue button that repositions the turret with one command. Preliminary testing showed the upgrades reduced target engagement time from six seconds to three by allowing the commander and gunner to work more closely and collaborate better on target acquisition.


The M1 Abrams's powertrain consists of a Honeywell AGT1500 (originally made by Lycoming) multifuel gas turbine capable of 1,500 shaft horsepower (1,100 kW) at 30,000 rpm and 395 lb⋅ft (536 N.m) at 10,000 rpm and a six-speed (four forward, two reverse) Allison X-1100-3B Hydro-Kinetic automatic transmission. This gives it a governed top speed of 45 mph (72 km/h) on paved roads, and 30 mph (48 km/h) cross-country. With the engine governor removed, speeds of around 60 mph (97 km/h) are possible on an improved surface. However, damage to the drivetrain (especially to the tracks) and an increased risk of injuries to the crew can occur at speeds above 45 mph (72 km/h).
The tank was built around this engine and it is multifuel-capable, including diesel, kerosene, any grade of motor gasoline, and jet fuel (such as JP-4 or JP-8). For logistical reasons, JP-8 is the U.S. military's universal fuel powering both aircraft and vehicle fleets. The Australian M1A1 AIM SA burns diesel fuel, since the use of JP-8 is less common in the Australian Army.
The gas turbine propulsion system has proven quite reliable in practice and combat, but its high fuel consumption is a serious logistic issue. The engine burns more than 1.67 US gallons (6.3 L) per mile (60 US gallons (230 L) per hour) when traveling cross-country and 10 US gallons (38 L) per hour when idle.
The high speed, high temperature jet blast emitted from the rear of M1 Abrams tanks makes it hazardous for infantry to take cover or follow behind the tank in urban combat. The turbine is very quiet when compared to diesel engines of similar power output and produces a significantly different sound from a contemporary diesel tank engine, reducing the audible distance of the sound, thus earning the Abrams the nickname "whispering death" during its first Reforger exercise.
The Army received proposals, including two diesel options, to provide the common engine for the XM2001 Crusader and Abrams. In 2000, the Army selected the gas turbine engine LV100-5 from Honeywell and subcontractor General Electric. The new LV100-5 engine was lighter and smaller (43% fewer parts) with rapid acceleration, quieter running, and no visible exhaust. It also featured a 33% reduction in fuel consumption (50% less when idle) and near drop-in replacement. The Common Engine Program was shelved when the Crusader program was canceled, however Phase 2 of Army's PROSE (Partnership for Reduced O&S Costs, Engine) program called for further development of the LV100-5 and replacement of the current AGT1500 engine.
An 220-pound (100 kg) Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) was designed by the Army's TARDEC, replacing an existing battery pack that weighs about 500 pounds (230 kg). It uses a high power density 330 cc (20 in3) Wankel rotary engine modified to use diesel and military grade jet fuel. The new APU will also be more fuel efficient than the tank's main engine. Testing of the first APUs began in 2009.
Although the M1 tank is not designed to carry riders easily, provisions exist for the Abrams to transport troops in tank desant with the turret stabilization device switched off. A battle equipped infantry squad may ride on the rear of the tank, behind the turret. The soldiers can use ropes and equipment straps to provide handholds and snap links to secure themselves. If and when enemy contact is made, the tank conceals itself allowing the infantry to dismount.
Strategic mobility is the ability of the tanks of an armed force to arrive in a timely, cost effective, and synchronized fashion. The Abrams can be carried by a C-5 Galaxy or a C-17 Globemaster III. The limited capacity (two combat-ready tanks in a C-5, one combat-ready tank in a C-17) caused serious logistical problems when deploying the tanks for the first Persian Gulf War, though there was enough time for 1,848 tanks to be transported by ship.
Marines transport their Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF)-attached Abrams tanks by combat ship. A Wasp-class Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) typically carries a platoon of 4 to 5 tanks attached to the deployed Marine Expeditionary Unit, which are then amphibiously transported to shore by Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) at 1 combat-ready tank per landing craft.
The Abrams is also transportable by truck, namely the Oshkosh M1070 and M1000 Heavy Equipment Transporter System (HETS) for the US Military. The HETS can operate on highways, secondary roads, and cross-country. It accommodates the four tank crew members. The Australian Army uses customised MAN trucks to transport its Abrams.
The first instance of the Abrams being airlifted directly into a battlefield occurred in October 1993. Following the Battle of Mogadishu, 18 M1 tanks were airlifted by C-5 aircraft to Somalia from Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia.
Variants and upgrades
XM1-FSED: Preproduction test model. Eleven Full-Scale Engineering Development test bed vehicles were produced in 1977-78. These vehicles were also called Pilot Vehicles and numbered PV-1 through PV-11.
M1: First production variant. Production began (at Chrysler) in 1979 and continued to 1985 (at General Dynamics) (3,273 built for the US). The first 110 tanks were low rate initial production (LRIP) models, still called XM1s, because they were built before the tank being type-classified as the M1.
M1IP (Improved Performance): Produced briefly in 1984 before the M1A1, contained upgrades and reconfigurations like new turret with thicker frontal armor, new turret is referred as long turret instead of older short turret, armor upgraded from ~650 mm line of sight thickness to ~880 mm (894 built for US).
M1A1: Production started in 1985 and continued to 1992, pressurized NBC system, rear bustle rack for improved stowage of supplies and crew belongings, redesigned blow-off panels and M256 120 mm smoothbore cannon (4,976 built for the U.S. Army, 221 for USMC, 59 M1A1 AIM SA sold to Australia).
M1A1HA (Heavy Armor): Added first generation depleted uranium armor components. Some tanks were later upgraded with second generation depleted uranium armor components, and are unofficially designated M1A1HA+.
M1A1HC (Heavy Common): Added new second generation depleted uranium armor components, digital engine control and other small upgrades common between Army and Marine Corps tanks.
M1A1D (Digital): A digital upgrade for the M1A1HC, to keep up with M1A2 SEP, manufactured in quantity for only 2 battalions.
M1A1 AIM v.1 (Abrams Integrated Management): A program whereby older units are reconditioned to zero hour conditions; and the tank is improved by adding Forward-Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) and Far Target Locate sensors, a tank-infantry phone, communications gear, including FBCB2 and Blue Force Tracking to aid in crew situational awareness, and a thermal sight for the .50 caliber machine gun.
M1A1 AIM v.2/M1A1SA (Situational Awareness): Upgrades similar to AIM v.1 tanks + new third generation depleted uranium armor components. Configuration for the Royal Moroccan Army, which is almost identical to the Australian variant, except exportable turret armor is installed by General Dynamics Land System to replace the DU armor.
M1A1 FEP (Firepower Enhancement Package): Similar upgrade to AIM v.2 for USMC tanks.
M1A1KVT (Krasnovian Variant Tank): M1A1s that have been visually modified to resemble Soviet-made tanks for use at the National Training Center, fitted with MILES gear and a Hoffman device.
M1A1M: An export variant ordered by the Iraqi Army.
M1A1 (AIDATS upgrade): Upgrade-only variant to all USMC General Dynamics M1A1 Abrams tanks to improve the tank commander's situational awareness with an upgraded thermal sight, color day camera, and a stationary color display.
M1A2 (Baseline): Production began in 1992 and initial operating capability achieved in 1993. (77 built for the U.S. and more than 600 M1s upgraded to M1A2, 315 for Saudi Arabia, 1,005 for Egypt, 218 for Kuwait). The M1A2 offers the tank commander an independent thermal sight and ability to, in rapid sequence, shoot at two targets without the need to acquire each one sequentially, also second generation depleted uranium armor components.
M1A2 SEP (System Enhancement Package): Is fitted with new, second-generation gunner's thermal sight. Has upgraded third-generation depleted uranium armor components with graphite coating (240 new built, 300 M1A2s upgraded to M1A2 SEP for the US, also unknown numbers of upgraded basic M1s and M1IPs, also 400 oldest M1A1s upgraded to M1A2 SEP).
M1A2S (Saudi Package): Saudi Arabian variant upgrade of the M1A2 based on M1A2 SEP, with some features, such as depleted uranium armor, believed to be missing and replaced by special armor. (442 M1A2s upgraded to M1A2S).
M1A2 SEPv2: Added Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station as standard, color displays, improved interfaces, a new operating system, improved front and side armor with ERA (TUSK kit), tank-infantry phone as standard, and an upgraded transmission for better durability.
M1A2 SEPv3 (formerly M1A2C): Has increased power generation and distribution, better communications and networking, new Vehicle Health Management System (VHMS) and Line Replaceable Modules (LRMs) for improved maintenance, an Ammunition DataLink (ADL) to use airburst rounds, improved counter-IED armor package, improved FLIR using long- and mid-wave infrared, a low-profile CROWS RWS, Next Generation Armor Package (NGAP), and an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) under armor to run electronics while stationary instead of the engine, visually distinguishing the version by a small exhaust at the left rear. More passive ballistic protection added to the turret faces, along with new Explosive Reactive Armor mountings (Abrams Reactive Armor Tile (ARAT)) and Trophy Active Protection systems added to the turret sides. Prototypes began testing in 2015, and the first were delivered in October 2017. The first unit received them in July 2020.
M1A2T: Special configuration variant of the M1A2 SEPv3 reportedly being offered for sale to Taiwan as of March 2019 and approved by US State Department as of July 2019. Per DSCA statement, it is roughly equivalent to M1A2 SEPv3, except depleted uranium armor is replaced by FMS export armor. There is no mention of the Trophy APS system. The new-built tanks will be produced at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, and the Joint Systems Manufacturing Center, Lima, Ohio.
M1A2 SEPv4 (formerly M1A2D): Under development as of 29 March 2022. The Commander's Primary Sight, also known as the Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer, and Gunner's Primary Sight will be upgraded with third Gen FLIR, an improved laser rangefinder and color cameras. Additional improvements will include advanced meteorological sensors, laser warning/detection receivers, directional smoke grenade launchers and integration of the new XM1147 advanced multi-purpose (AMP) 120 mm tank round. The AN/VVR-4 laser warning receiver and ROSY rapid obscurant system have been trialed by the US Army for adoption on the Abrams tank and Bradley fighting vehicle.
M1A2-K: Under development, unique variant for the Kuwaiti Army, slated to replace Kuwait's current M1A2 fleet.
Tank Test Bed (TTB) Prototype TACOM project begun in 1983 with unmanned turret, three crew members in armored capsule in front of the heavy armored hull, main armament was 120 mm smoothbore gun M256, mechanical loading system under turret.
Component Advanced Technology Test Bed (CATTB) was an experimental model with a XM291 140 mm smoothbore cannon, heavy armored turret and upgraded hull based on the Abrams chassis. It had a mechanical loading system in turret bustle, a new engine and probably other upgrades, never fielded. The tank went into trials in 1987-88.
Air Ground Defense System (AGDS): Proposed air defense variant of the Abrams equipped with dual 35 mm Bushmaster III autocannons, 12 ADATS missiles and advanced electro-optical and radar targeting systems derived from the ADATS. It was supposed to be capable of both air defence and anti-tank purposes with the ADATS MIM-146 missiles which was a dual purpose ATGM/SAM. The proposal never saw consideration and was never developed further.
AbramsX is a technology demonstrator of the M1 Abrams series by General Dynamics Land Systems. The AbramsX features an autoloader, unmanned turret (which reduces the crew to 3), a hybrid diesel-electric power pack that gives 50% more fuel efficiency, a 30 mm chain gun in a remote weapon station, active protection systems, augmented reality that would increase the crew's awareness thanks to cameras and sensors mounted around the tank’s exterior, a silent mode when running on electric power, the ability to be updated more easily than existing tanks, the ability to utilize loitering munitions such as switchblade as well as surveillance drones, and reduced weight for improved mobility. In October 2022, GDLS released a video showing the Technology Demonstrator and various technology tests.
RV90 Armored Recovery Vehicle: A prototype designed by General Dynamics was produced in 1988 and evaluated against the M88A1E1 later that year. The Army selected the M88A1E1, which went into production as the M88A2 Hercules.
M1 Grizzly Combat Mobility Vehicle (CMV).
M1 Panther II: A remote controlled mine clearing vehicle with turret removed, mine rollers on front, and the Standardized Teleoperation System.
M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge.
M1074 Joint Assault Bridge (JAB): Bridgelayer combining a heavy "scissor" bridge with the M1 Abrams chassis. Expected to reach low-rate initial production in 2019 to replace the M60 AVLB and M104 Wolverine.
M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicle (ABV): Assault variant for the USMC. Based upon the M1A1 Abrams chassis, the Assault Breacher Vehicle has a variety of systems installed, such as a full-width mine plow, two linear demolition charges, and a lane-marking system. Reactive armor has been fitted to the vehicle providing additional protection against High-explosive anti-tank warhead-based weapons. The turret has been replaced by a new smaller one with two MICLIC launchers at its rear. A M2HB .50 machine gun in a remote weapons station is mounted on the commander's cupola and a bank of grenade launchers are fitted to each side of the superstructure to cover the frontal arc for self-protection.
Additional equipment
M1A1 Mine Clearing Blade System (MCBS): (LIN B13228) It is electrically operated and is capable of clearing surface or buried mines up to 6 feet in front of the tank's path. The plough produces a windrow of soil that is filled with mines. This windrow must be reduced using a mine rake or by laying a MICLIC alongside the windrow and detonating it. The plough is also capable of pushing up berms, clearing trench-lines, and proofing lanes and staging areas. It can be adapted for use on the M60A1 MBT.
Self Protection Combat Roller (SPCR): (LIN M53112) The Self Protection Combat Roller (SPCR) exerts high pressure onto the ground ahead of the tracks of the host vehicle to target pressure activated explosive devices in order to actively prove routes. It is designed to operate on concrete, asphalt, gravel and hard dirt roads. The system comprises two 4-wheel roller gangs to protect the vehicle tracks which stow neatly to minimize its impact on vehicle operation ability and mobility when not in use. The rollers are able to steer left and right to provide a level of coverage during cornering. An optional Magnetic System Duplicator (MSD) can be fitted to help protect the equipment from the effect of magnetic influence fused mines.
Surface Clearance Device (SCD): (LIN B17484) The SCD is employed to clear surface laid mines and IEDs from roads, trails and rough terrain. There are two versions of the SCD; a V-blade optimised for clearing routes and a straight angle-blade which is optimised for clearing staging and assembly areas.
Vehicle Magnetic Signature Duplicator (VEMSID): (LIN V53112) The VEMSID increases the effectiveness and survivability of countermine equipment by causing the stand-off detonation of magnetic influence mines at a safe distance ahead of the tank. It generates a multi-axial magnetic signature optimized for passively fused magnetic influence fused mines. The system comprises four emitter coils, two associated power boxes and an MSD Control Unit (MSDCU).


Abrams specifications
_ - M1 - M1IP - M1A1 - M1A2 - M1A2 SEP
Produced - 1979-85 - 1984 - 1985-92 - 1992 on - 1999 on
Length - 32.04 ft (9.77 m) - 32.04 ft (9.77 m) - 32.04 ft (9.77 m) - 32.04 ft (9.77 m) - 32.04 ft (9.77 m)
Width - 12 ft (3.7 m) - 12 ft (3.7 m) - 12 ft (3.7 m) - 12 ft (3.7 m) - 12 ft (3.7 m)
Height - 7.79 ft (2.37 m) - 7.79 ft (2.37 m) - 8.0 ft (2.4 m) - 8.0 ft (2.4 m) - 8.0 ft (2.4 m)
Top speed - 45 mph (72 km/h) - 45 mph (72 km/h) - 41.5 mph (66.8 km/h) - 41.5 mph (66.8 km/h) - 42 mph (68 km/h)
Range - 310 mi (500 km) - 275 mi (443 km) - 288 mi (463 km) - 265 mi (426 km) - 264 mi (425 km)
Power - 1,500 shp (1,100 kW) - 1,500 shp (1,100 kW) - 1,500 shp (1,100 kW) - 1,500 shp (1,100 kW) - 1,500 shp (1,100 kW)
Weight - 61.4 short tons (55.7 t) - 62.8 short tons (57.0 t) - M1A1: 61.5 short tons (55.8 t) . M1A1SA: 67.6 short tons (61.3 t) - 68.4 short tons (62.1 t) - SEP v1: 69.5 short tons (63.0 t) . SEP v2: 71.2 short tons (64.6 t) . SEP v3: 73.6 short tons (66.8 t)
Main armament - 105 mm M68A1 rifled - 105 mm M68A1 rifled - 120 mm M256A1 smoothbore - 120 mm M256A1 smoothbore - 120 mm M256A1 smoothbore
Crew - 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver) - 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver) - 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver) - 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver) - 4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)
Protection - Chobham armor - Longer turret for thicker composite array - M1A1: BRL-2 composite armor . M1A1HA/HC/M1A2: Depleted uranium inserts in frontal turret arrays . M1A1 AIM/SA: Depleted uranium inserts in hull and turret - M1A1: BRL-2 composite armor . M1A1HA/HC/M1A2: Depleted uranium inserts in frontal turret arrays . M1A1 AIM/SA: Depleted uranium inserts in hull and turret - Depleted uranium inserts in hull and turret . Improved Chobham armor and increased turret armor . Additions of ARAT ERA, slat armor
 Australia - Australian Army: 59 M1A1 (AIM) configuration tanks (hybrids with a mix of equipment used by U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps but without depleted uranium layers in armor). These tanks were bought from the U.S. in 2006 and replaced the Leopard AS1 in 2007. As of 2017, the Australian Government was considering expanding the Army's fleet of Abrams to 90 tanks. In April 2021, the U.S. granted an FMS for 160 M1A1 tank hulls to produce 75 M1A2 SEPv3 Abrams Main Battle Tanks, 29 M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicles and 18 M1074 Joint Assault Bridges including the development of a unique armor package for the Australian Army. In January 2022, Australia committed to purchase 120 tanks and armored vehicles including 75 M1A2s at a total cost of $3.5 billion and to be delivered in 2024; the M1A2s are to replace their 59 M1A1s which were bought in 2007.
 Egypt - Egyptian Army: 1,360 M1A1 tanks assembled in Egypt for the Egyptian Army in cooperation with the U.S.
 Iraq - Iraqi Army: 321 M1A1Ms Iraq was leasing 22 U.S. Army M1A1s for training in 2008. The first 11 tanks were delivered to the Iraqi Army in August 2010 with all deliveries completed by August 2011. In October 2012, it was reported that six more tanks were being delivered. Zaloga wrote that four battalions of the 9th Armoured Division were equipped with M1s by 2014: 1st and 2nd of the 34th Brigade, and 4th and 5th of the 35th Brigade.
 Kuwait - Kuwaiti Army: 218 M1A2s.
 Poland - Polish Land Forces: Poland has bought 250 new American M1 Abrams tanks in the newest M1A2 SEP v3 version. Production is set to finish by 2024, and delivery to early 2025. After donation of over 200 Polish T-72 tanks to Ukraine, an agreement between the Polish and American governments was signed to buy 116 ex-U.S. M1A1 Abrams tanks. Delivery is expected to start in 2022. 7 loaned training tanks have already delivered to Poland as of July 2022. The total purchase cost with support vehicles, crew training, and large supply of ammunition will cost PLN 23.3 billion (approximately $6 billion). The Abrams tanks are to supplement 247 Leopard 2PL main battle tanks as well as older T-72 and PT-91 tanks. 28 tanks in variant SEPv2 were leased in July 2022 to tank crews until proper deliveries begin.
 Saudi Arabia - Saudi Arabian Army: 373 Abrams tanks, To be upgraded to M1A2S configuration in Saudi Arabia. 69 more M1A2S tanks ordered on 8 January 2013, to be delivered by 31 July 2014.
 Morocco - Royal Moroccan Army: 222 M1A1 SA (situational awareness) tanks ordered in 2015. Deliveries under the contract started in July 2016 with an estimated completion date of February 2018. The contract include 150 refurbished and upgraded tanks to the special armor configuration. Morocco took delivery of the first batch of M1A1SAs on 28 July 2016. A Foreign Military Sale for 162 M1A2Ms was approved by the U.S. Department of State in November 2018 and sent to Congress for final approval.
 Taiwan - Republic of China Army: Taiwan was considering the purchase of upwards 200 M1 Abrams tanks, which was later reduced with the intention of acquiring 120 M1A1 tanks. The Ministry of National Defence stated in 2016 that it was in discussion with the U.S. about sales of M1A1s. This plan was apparently canceled by October 2017. Instead the Taiwanese government plans to upgrade its M60A3s in service with a 120 mm main gun, new ballistics computer, etc. In July 2018, Taiwan's Ministry of National Defense budgeted money to purchase 108 M1A2 tanks from the U.S. government, to replace its aging CM-11 Brave Tiger and M60A3 TTS battle tanks. The U.S. Department of State approved the $2.2 billion sale in July 2019. A sale of 108 M1A2T tanks was later finalized. The first two of these tanks were delivered to Taiwan in September 2022.
 United States - United States Army and United States Marine Corps received over 8,100 M1, M1A1 and M1A2 tanks combined.
U.S. Army - 2,509 total, 750 M1A1SA, 1,605 M1A2 SEPv2, 154 M1A2 SEPv3 (some 3,700 more M1A1 and M1A2 in storage).
Potential and future operators
 Brazil - Following Brazil's official designation as major non-NATO ally of the United States in July 2019, the U.S. government offered the Brazilian Armed Forces several models of military equipment; the country is interested in potentially acquiring between 110 and 130 M1A1 Abrams tanks, which would be upgraded on U.S. soil and operated as Brazil's main battle tanks for the next 20 years.
 Greece - Hellenic Army: 400 ex-U.S. Army M1A1 tanks have been offered to Greece in 2011.
Former operators
 United States - United States Marine Corps: In 2020 the Marine Corps announced the disbandment of its tank units, citing a pivot towards amphibious warfare. All 450 of the Marine Corps M1 Abrams MBTs were transferred to the U.S. Army with withdrawal from Marine Corps service being completed in May 2021.

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