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M48 Patton 3 - Средний танк (США), продолжение

M48 Patton - ...ПРОДОЛЖЕНИЕ

Combat service

Vietnam War
The M48 saw extensive action with the US military during the Vietnam War. Over 600 Pattons would be deployed with US forces during that war. The initial M48s first landed with the US Marine 1st and 3rd Tank Battalions in 1965, with the 5th Marine Tank Battalion later becoming a back-up/reinforcement unit. The remaining Pattons deployed to South Vietnam were in three US Army battalions, namely the 1-77th Armor near the DMZ (67 M48A2C - 23 tanks supplied from US Army Training Center at Fort Knox, and 44 tanks from Letterkenny Army Depot) tanks were used by the 77th Armor from August 1968 to January 1969.
These were later replaced with M48A3s), the 1-69th Armor in the Central Highlands of central South Vietnam and the 2-34th Armor positioned near the Mekong Delta. Each battalion consisted of approximately 57 tanks. M48s were also used by Armored Cavalry Squadrons in Vietnam until replaced by M551 Sheridan Armored Reconnaissance Airborne Assault Vehicles (ARAAV) in the Divisional Cavalry Squadrons. M48A3 tanks remained in service with the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment until the unit was withdrawn from the conflict. Some M48 variants, nicknamed "Zippos", or M67A1 Flame tanks were used by some U.S Marine Corps units, but the U.S. Army no longer used them. From 1965 to 1968, 120 US M48A3 tanks were written off.
The M48 Patton has the distinction of playing a unique role in an event that was destined to radically alter the conduct of armored warfare. When US forces commenced redeployment operations, many of the M48A3 Pattons were turned over to the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces, in particular creating the battalion-sized ARVN 20th Tank Regiment; which supplemented their M41 Walker Bulldog units. During the North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) Easter Offensive in 1972, tank clashes between PAVN T-54/PT-76 and ARVN M48/M41 units became commonplace.
On 23 April 1972, tankers of the 20th Tank Regiment were attacked by a PAVN infantry-tank team, which was equipped with the new 9M14M Malyutka (NATO designation: Sagger) wire-guided anti-tank missile. During this battle, one M48A3 Patton tank and one M113 Armored Cavalry Assault Vehicle (ACAV) were destroyed, becoming the first losses to the Sagger missile; losses that would echo on an even larger scale a year later during the Yom Kippur War in the Middle East in 1973. By 2 May, the 20th Tank Regiment had lost all of their tanks to enemy fire. During the first month of the First Battle of Quảng Trị, all ARVN M48 Pattons (100 tanks) were lost.
The M48s performed admirably in South Vietnam in the infantry-support role. However, there were few actual tank versus tank battles. One was between the US 1-69th Armor and PT-76 light amphibious tanks of the PAVN 202nd Armored Regiment at Ben Het Camp in March 1969. The M48s provided adequate protection for its crew from small arms, mines, and rocket-propelled grenades. South Vietnamese M48s and M41s fought in the 1975 Spring Offensive. In several incidents, the ARVN successfully defeated PAVN T-34 and T-55 tanks and even slowed the North's offensive.
However, due to shortages of fuel and munitions faced by the South Vietnamese military because of the US Congress-placed ban on the further funding and supply of military equipment and logistics to the country, the American-made tanks soon ran out of ammunition and fuel and were quickly abandoned to the PAVN, which then put them in their service after the war ended in May 1975. In total, 250 of the ARVN's M48A3s were destroyed and captured: 10  and those captured (at least 30) were only used briefly before being phased out and turned into war-memorial displays all over Vietnam.
M48s, along with Australian 20 pounder (84 mm) - gunned Centurions of the 1st Armoured Regiment, were the only vehicles in use by the anti-communist side in the Vietnam War that could reasonably protect their crews from land mines. They were often used for minesweeping operations along Highway 19 in the Central Highlands, a two-lane paved road between An Khe and Pleiku. Daily convoys moved both ways along Highway 19. These convoys were held up each morning while the road was swept for mines. At that time, minesweeping was done by soldiers walking slowly over the dirt shoulders of the highway with hand-held mine detectors.
During this slow process, convoys would build up into a dangerously-inviting target for the enemy, especially their guerillas and partisans. As a result, a faster method was improvised, the "Thunder Run", in which one M48 lined up on each side of the road, with one track on the dirt shoulder and the other track on the asphalt, and then with all guns firing, they raced to a designated position miles away. If the M48s made it without striking a mine, the road was clear and the convoys could proceed. In most cases, an M48 that struck a land mine in these operations only lost a road wheel or two in the explosion; seldom was there any hull damage that would be considered a catastrophic kill.
Supply of M48A3 tanks to South Vietnam:
1971: 54.
May 1972: 120.
October 1972: 72.
November 1972: 59.
January 1973 - July 1974: 16.
Total: at least 321 M48 tanks.
According to official US data 343 M48s were delivered to the ARVN up to March 1975, all of which were destroyed or captured.
The United States lost at least 123 M48 tanks (non-repairable) during the war. As a result, the United States with South Vietnam lost about 500 M48 tanks.
Indo-Pakistani wars
M47s and M48s were used in tank warfare by the Pakistan Army against the Indian Army's Soviet T-55s, British Centurions and US M4 Sherman tanks in both the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 as well as the following war in 1971 with at least some good results. During Operation Grand Slam, Pakistani tank forces, composed mainly of M47 and M48 Patton tanks, thrust through the Indian defence-lines very quickly and swiftly defeated back Indian Army armoured counter-attacks.
The Pakistanis used approximately a division's worth of tanks in the operation, although not all were Pattons, with upgraded Shermans included as well. In contrast, Pakistan's Patton tank failed to live up to its high expectations in the Battle of Asal Uttar in September 1965, where about 97 Pakistani tanks were lost, the majority of them being Pattons (M47s and M48s). Later, the Patton tank was the main Pakistani tank at the Battle of Chawinda and its performance at that battle was deemed satisfactory against Indian armour.
The Patton was later used by Pakistan again, this time, in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. A counter-attack led by the 13th Lancers and the 31st Cavalry army units was defeated by the Indian 54th Division around Battle of Barapind in December 1971. The Pakistan Army Patton tanks could not stop an assault by Indian T-55 Soviet-supplied tanks of the 2nd Armored Brigade. At least 9 of the Pattons were destroyed by T-55 tanks during the battle of Nainakot. It total, more than 80 Pakistani Pattons were knocked out during battle, mainly by Centurion and T-55 fire.
India later set up a temporary war-memorial so named "Patton Nagar" (or "Patton City") in Khemkaran District in Punjab, where the captured Pakistani Patton tanks were displayed for a short period of time before being scrapped or sent all across India for use as war monuments and military memorials.
Analysing their overall performance in their wars with India, the Pakistani military held that the Patton was held in reasonably-high esteem by both sides and that combat-tactics were to blame for their utter defeat and the following debacle at Asal Uttar. However, a post-war US study of the tank battles in South Asia concluded that the Patton's armor could, in fact, be penetrated by the 20-pounder tank gun (84 mm) of the Centurion (later replaced by the even-more successful L7 105 mm gun on the Mk. 7 version which India also possessed) as well as the 75 mm tank gun of the AMX-13 light tank.
Middle East
M48s were also used with mixed results during the Six-Day War of 1967. On the Sinai battlefront, Israeli M48s upgunned with the then-advanced 105 mm L7 rifled tank gun were used with considerable success against Egyptian IS-3s, T-54s/T-55s, T-34/85s and SU-100s supplied by the Soviet Union during the 1950s and the 1960s (such as during the Second Battle of Abu-Ageila. On the Sinai front, Israel lost 50 M48 tanks of 117: 39 M48A2C and 11 M48A3. However, on the West Bank war-front, Jordanian M48s (Jordan was also a user of the M48 Patton as was Israel at the same time-period) were often defeated by Israeli 105 mm - armed Centurions and WWII-era upgraded M4 Shermans - M-51s upgunned with French-built 105 mm tank guns, not to be confused with the British L7 105 mm tank gun.
In purely-technical terms, the Pattons were far superior to the much-older Shermans, with shots at more than 1,000 meters simply glancing off the M48's armor. However, the 105 mm main gun of the Israeli Shermans fired a HEAT round designed to defeat the Soviet T-62 tank, which was the USSR's response to the M48's successor in US service, the M60 tank. The Jordanian Pattons' general failure on the West Bank could also be attributed to excellent Israeli air superiority. The Israeli Army captured about 100 Jordanian M48 and M48A1 tanks and pressed them into service in their own units after the war, as were the Jordanian M113 APCs they seized during the war.
Israel used 445 M48 tanks in 1973 during the Yom Kippur War. From 15 to 18 October, M48 tanks participated in the largest tank battle of the war - Battle of the Chinese Farm. The battle involved the Egyptian 21st Armored Division (136 T-55s), 25th Armored Brigade (75 T-62s), tank battalion (21 T-55s) from 24th Armored Brigade (in the total 232 Egyptian tanks) and the Israeli 143rd and 162nd Armored Divisions (about 440 tanks).
The battle ended with an Israeli victory, but both sides lost a huge number of tanks in this battle (each side lost about two hundred tanks). On the night of 15/16 October, the Israeli 14th Brigade of the 143rd Division lost 70 tanks out of 97. Between the 16th at 0900 and the 17th at 1400, the Israeli 143rd and 162nd Divisions have lost 96 tanks. As of 18 October the Egyptian 21st Armored Division had no more than 40 tanks remaining of an original 136 tanks available at the start of the battle, 25th Armored Brigade had only 10 tanks of an original 75 T-62s.
Aside from the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), the M48 was also operated by the Lebanese Army, the Christian Lebanese Forces militia, the Druze Progressive Socialist Party's People's Liberation Army militia, the Shia Amal militia and the South Lebanon Army. All the tanks seized by the militias were captured from the Army's mostly Druze 4th Infantry Brigade which collapsed due to sectarian divisions in 1983. On 10 June 1982, eight Israeli M48A3s, two M60A1s and at least three M113 APCs were lost in a successful ambush by Syrian T-55 tanks and BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) during the Battle of Sultan Yacoub in 1982.
The Lebanese Army still operates about 100 M48s. In 2007, during the 2007 North Lebanon conflict, Lebanese Army M48s shelled militant outposts located in a refugee camp.
Together with the M47, M48 tanks were used by the Turkish Armed Forces during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. The Turkish Armed Forces in Northern Cyprus continue to use M48 tanks today.
When the Kurdish-Turkish conflict began, the Turkish Armed Forces had a number of M48s. These were used throughout the 1980s and the 1990s as static artillery and was used in defending military-base perimeters from enemy attacks.
Iranian M48 tanks were used widely in the Iran-Iraq War from 1980 to 1988, where they faced Iraqi T-55s, T-62s and T-72s, alongside M60 Pattons, in fierce and harsh combat with their Iraqi foes, with mixed results. M48s of the 37th Armored Brigade were used in the Battle of Abadan. About 150 of M48s were lost in this tank battle alone.
Africa
In 1973, Morocco took delivery of its first M48A3s. By the end of the 1970s, further deliveries of M48A5 had occurred and the upgrade to M48A5 was achieved locally with the aid of US consultants. In 1987, a final shipment of 100 M48A5 tanks from the Wisconsin National Guard was delivered to the Moroccan army. There are unconfirmed reports of deliveries of Israeli M48A5s during the 1980s. The tanks were used in the Western Sahara desert against Polisario guerrillas.
Pakistan used M48 Pattons while reinforcing American troops during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993.

Variants
_ - T48 - M48 - M48A1 - M48A2 - M48A3 - M48A5
Overall length (gun forward) - 343.7 in (8.7 m) - 346.9 in (8.8 m) - 346.9 in (8.8 m) - 341.8 in (8.7 m) - 341.8 in (8.7 m) - 366.4 in (9.3 m)
Overall width - 143.0 in (3.6 m)
Height - 127.6 in (3.2 m) (over MG) - 127.6 in (3.2 m) (over MG) - 121.6 in (3.1 m) (over cupola periscope) - 121.6 in (3.1 m) (over cupola periscope) - 129.3 in (3.3 m) (over cupola periscope) - 120.5 in (3.1 m) (over cupola periscope)
Ground clearance - 16.5 in (41.9 cm)
Top speed - 30 mph (48 km/h) - 28 mph (45 km/h) - 28 mph (45 km/h) - 30 mph (48 km/h) - 30 mph (48 km/h) - 30 mph (48 km/h)
Fording - 48 in (1.2 m) - 48 in (1.2 m) - 48 in (1.2 m) - 40 in (1.0 m) - 48 in (1.2 m) w/o kit - 48 in (1.2 m) w/o kit
Max. grade - 60%
Max. trench - 8.5 ft (2.6 m)
Max. wall - 36 in (0.9 m)
Range - 70 mi (110 km) - 70 mi (110 km) - 70 mi (110 km) - 160 mi (260 km) - 300 mi (480 km) - 300 mi (480 km)
Power - 810 hp (600 kW) at 2800 rpm - 810 hp (600 kW) at 2800 rpm - 810 hp (600 kW) at 2800 rpm - 825 hp (615 kW) at 2800 rpm - 750 hp (560 kW) at 2400 rpm - 750 hp (560 kW) at 2400 rpm
Power-to-weight ratio - 16.5 hp/ST (13.6 kW/t) - 16.4 hp/ST (13.5 kW/t) - 15.6 hp/ST (12.8 kW/t) - 15.7 hp/ST (12.9 kW/t) - 14.0 hp/ST (11.5 kW/t) - 13.9 hp/ST (11.4 kW/t)
Torque - 1,610 lb.ft (2,180 N.m) at 2200 rpm - 1,610 lb.ft (2,180 N.m) at 2200 rpm - 1,600 lb.ft (2,170 N.m) at 2200 rpm - 1,670 lb.ft (2,260 N.m) at 2200 rpm - 1,710 lb.ft (2,320 N.m) at 1800 rpm - 1,710 lb.ft (2,320 N.m) at 1800 rpm
Weight, combat loaded - 98,400 lb (44,630 kg) - 99,000 lb (44,910 kg) - 104,000 lb (47,170 kg) - 105,000 lb (47,630 kg) - 107,000 lb (48,530 kg) - 108,000 lb (48,990 kg)
Ground pressure - 11.2 psi (77 kPa) - 11.2 psi (77 kPa) - 11.8 psi (81 kPa) - 11.9 psi (82 kPa) - 12.1 psi (83 kPa) - 12.2 psi (84 kPa)
Main armament - 90 mm M41/T139  (105 mm M68 - M48A5)
Elevation, main gun - (+20° -9° - T48) +19° -9°
Traverse rate - (10 seconds/360° - T48) 15 seconds/360°
Elevation rate - 4°/second
Main gun ammo - 60 rounds - 60 rounds - 60 rounds - 64 rounds - 62 rounds - 54 rounds
Firing rate - 8 rounds/minute - 8 rounds/minute - 8 rounds/minute - 8 rounds/minute - 8 rounds/minute - 7 rounds/minute

T48: Developmental prototypes designed in 1950 and used between 1951 and 1955.
M48: Initial production variant with Mod A hull & turret designs featuring M41 90 mm gun, M1 remote-controllable machine gun mount and AV-1790-5 or -7 gasoline engine. Deemed not fit for combat use in Europe, relegated to CONUS use only.
M48C: M48 with incorrect hull ballistic protection. Relegated by CONARC to the Armored Forces School at Fort Knox for non-ballistic training of crewmembers and maintenance personnel.
M48A1: First variant to have M1 cupola and Mod B hull design. Fitted with external fuel drums to extend its range.
M48A2: Redesigned hull with simplified suspension system and louvered engine access doors, AVI-1790-8 fuel-injected gasoline engine and Mod B turret design.
M48A2C: M48A2 fitted with M13 fire control system.
M48A3: Featured AVDS-1790-2A diesel engine and M1E1 cupola. Withdrawn from combat use in 1973, replaced by M60A1.
M48A4: Proof of concept prototype mating the T95E4 turret to the M48A2 hull.
M48A5PI: Early conversions of M48A1 hulls to the M48A5 standard. Retained the AVDS-1790-2A engine, CD-850-5A transmission and T97 track. All were further upgraded in 1976 with components from the M60A1 RISE Hull PIP Update Kit and redesignated M48A5.
M48A5: Featured M68 105 mm gun, all metric-measurement M16 FCS, coax machine gun upgraded to M219 and a crew NBC protection system. Hull component upgrades included AVDS-1790-2C RISE engine, TLAC engine panels and T142 track. Some were fitted with the M19 cupola. All were relegated to the Army National Guard for CONUS training use. Replaced by the M60A3.
QM48: M48A3 designation for target vehicles. Withdrawn from use by 1994 and replaced in role by QM60.
Specialized
M48 AVLB: armored vehicle-launched bridge Former M48A3 with 60-foot (18 meters) scissors bridge mated to the M48A1/M48A2 hull. Most were upgraded with the M60 Hull PIP Update Kit.
M48 Tagash AVLB: Israeli variant of the M48 AVLB. Former Jordanian M48A2s. Upgraded with Merkava-based track and suspension, upgraded engine and two Tzmed tandem bridge sections.
M67 Flame Thrower Tank "Zippo": An M48 tank armed with a flame thrower and a mock barrel and deflector. Named after a popular cigarette lighter.
M48 Minenräumpanzer Keiler: German mine flail variant based on the M48A2 hull with upgraded 986 hp German MTU 871 Ka501 diesel engine and Renk HSWL 284 M transmission. As of 2007 they were still in service.
M48 Marksman SPAAG (Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun): British short range Marksman anti-aircraft system designed by GEC-Marconi. Armed with two Oerlikon 35 mm cannon mated to M48A2 hull. Not accepted for US service.
M247 Sergeant York DIVAD (Division Air Defense): A short range air defense system designed by Ford Aerospace armed with 2 Bofors 40 mm cannons mounted on the M48A1 hull incorporating component upgrades from the M60A1 Hull PIP Kit. Canceled by 1985.
M48T5 Tamay: Turkish combat support vehicles based on the M48A2 hull designed by TLFC Kayseri and introduced at the IDEF Show at Ankara, Turkey in December 2005.
M48T5 ARV (armored recovery vehicle): The turret has been replaced with a welded armored superstructure that provides protection from shell fragments and small arms fire and a front-mounted stabilizer/dozer blade. It is fitted with a hydraulically operated winch with a maximum rated capacity of 70 tons and an auxiliary winch with a capacity of two tons. Both winches are located at the front of the vehicle.
M48T5 CEV (Combat Engineer Vehicle): Visually similar to the ARV and has the same two winches and a front-mounted stabilizer/dozer blade. The boom is mounted on the right side of the hull at the front but has an extendable jib that can be fitted with various attachments to meet specific engineer requirements, when used as a crane it has a lift capacity of seven tons. The boom can be traversed through 195 degrees.
Additional equipment
M8 Bulldozer Kit for the M48 tank series (SNL G278): The M8 bulldozer installed on the M48 series tank will increase the vehicle's weight by 4.45 tons (4.04 metric tons). It is controlled by the driver.
International
E48 series: Foreign Military Sales designation for the M48 series
E48: modified M48/M48A1 variant for non-US service
E48A: modified M48A2 variant for non-US service
E48B: modified M48A3 variant for non-US service
E48C: modified M48A5 variant for non-US service
E48 AVLB: modified M48 AVLB variant for non-US service
Israeli variants:
Many of the Israeli M48s have been upgraded with additional reactive or passive armor. These up-armored versions are referred to as the Magach series.
Magach 1: Israeli M48A1/E48 variant armed with M41 90 mm main gun. Different configurations exist.
Magach 2: Israeli M48A2/E48A variant armed with M41 main gun Some fitted with ERA and Urdan cupola. Different configurations exist.
Magach 3: Modernized Israeli M48A1/A2/A3. Armed with British 105 mm L7A1 cannon, Urdan low profile commander's cupola, new communication suite and a AVDS-1790-2A 750 hp diesel engine. Most were eventually fitted with Blazer ERA. Different configurations exist.
Magach 5: Generally similar to the Magach 3, but with upgraded AVDS-1790-2D engine and CD-850-6A transmission. Most were fitted with Blazer ERA and Urdan cupola. Different configurations exist.
Spanish variants:
M48A3E: M48A3/E48B variant with M68E1 105 mm main gun, M17B1C rangefinder, M13A4 ballistic computer and AN/VSS-1(V)1 IR searchlight.
M48A5E1: M48A5E with upgraded engine.
M48A5E2: Hughes Mk7 fire control system with laser rangefinder & solid state ballistic computer and passive night vision equipment.
M48A5E3: Prototype vehicle. M48A5E2 fitted with gunner's IR thermal sight and a new gun stabilization system.
South Korean variants:
M48A3K: South Korean modified M48A3/E48C fitted with Laser Tank Fire Control System (LTFCS).
M48A5K1: 105 mm KM68A1 main gun, digital fire control system, M1 cupola and steel side skirts.
M48A5K2: Same as K1 but fitted with Urdan low profile cupola.
M48A5KW: Same as K2 but without side skirt armor.
Taiwanese variants:
M48A3 (Taiwan variant): M48/E48B variant with lower fuel capacity, Operational range lowered to 194 miles (312 km).
M48H/CM-11 Brave Tiger: M48/M60 hybrid variant mating the M48A3 turret to the M60A1 RISE hull. Included improved gun stabilization and new fire control system.
CM-12: M48A3/E48B variant upgraded with CM-11 FCS and weapons systems. Lower fuel capacity, range 126 miles (203 km).
Turkish variants:
M48A5T1: Turkish M48A5/E48C variant. Modifications include M68E1 105 mm gun, M19 FCS, a passive night vision system and AVDS-1790-2C RISE diesel engine. Some fitted with M19 cupola.
M48A5T2: upgraded to M21 FCS, laser range finder and TTS thermal sight for the gunner.
West German variants:
As a member of NATO, West Germany acquired a large fleet of M48 tanks.
Kampfpanzer M48A2CGA1: West German M48A2/E48A armed with 90 mm M41 main gun with a cylindrical blast deflector. Some were fitted with the M8 Bulldozer kit.
Kampfpanzer M48A2GA2: West German upgrade mounting L7A3 105 mm cannon with new cast gun mantlet and MG3 machine gun ring mounted on new circular cast commander's cupola, along with the MTU 871 diesel engine.
M48 G Export: West German upgrade for export, similar to the M48A2GA2 and equipped with MTU MB-837 Ea-500 diesel engine. Turkey had its five M48A1 tanks upgraded in Germany and bought another 165 upgrade kits.
Super M48: West German modular upgrade offered in 1994 by Krauss Maffei and Wegmann and other partners for the M48A2/A3. Upgrades included Applique armor panels for the turret, NBC protection system, MOLF 48 fire control system, thermal sight, laser rangefinder, MTU MB-837 Ka-501 diesel engine and Renk RK304 automatic transmission. Armed with L7A3 105 mm gun. Only 5 prototypes built.

M48A5 MOLF: (MOdular Laser Fire) Greek M48A5/E48C variant fitted with EMES-18 fire control system.

Zulfiqar-1: Iranian modernized M48A3/A5 variant developed in the mid 1990s, armed with a Russian 2A46 125 mm smoothbore main gun.

Operators

Current operators
 Greece: 390 M48A5 MOLF.
 Germany: 20 Minenräumpanzer Keiler in service as of 2007.
 Iran: 180 M48A5.
 Lebanon: 104 M48A5.
 Morocco: 225 M48A5.
 Poland: 4 Minenräumpanzer Keiler, transferred from Germany.
 South Korea: Around 300 M48A3K and 500 M48A5K1/K2 are in service. M48A3K are expected to be replaced by the K2 Black Panther in the distant future. Most of the M48A3K are used in reserve, but the South Korean military continues to use a few tanks in active service. However, the South Korean M48A3Ks are being replaced with K-1 tanks.
 Taiwan: 450 CM-11, 100 CM-12.
 Thailand: 105 M48A5PI.
 Turkey: 758 M48A5T2 in service. All other variants, 2,250 pieces including the 1,389 M48A5T1 are phased out of active service.
Former operators
 Belgium: Only M48 AVLBs.
 Iraq: Limited ad hoc use of captured Iranian tanks during Iran-Iraq War. Any remaining tanks scrapped after the war. It was never officially in Iraqi service.
 Israel: 561 Magach 5 Golan.
 Jordan: 200 M48A1.
 Norway: 38 M48, upgraded to M48A5 between 1982-86. Additional 17 acquired in 1986. The M48 was phased out in 1993.
 Pakistan: 300 M48A5's in active service till 2002, Currently in Reserve.
 Portugal: 86 M48A5 received supplied by West Germany from 1977. Replaced by 93 U.S. Supplied M60A3 TTS from 1993 and 37 Leopard-2A6 in the 2000s.
 North Vietnam: Limited ad hoc use of captured US and ARVN tanks during the Vietnam War. It was never officially in service with the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Many are displayed as war memorials.
 South Vietnam: Few hundred.
 Spain: 164 M48A5E.
 Tunisia: 28.
 West Germany: active service through 1993.
 United States of America: retired from combat in 1973, Army National Guard in 1987 and target use by 1994.
Non-state former operators
 Lebanese Forces: 7 M48A5s captured in 1984 from the Lebanese Army and returned in 1994.
 People's Liberation Army: 7 M48A5s captured in 1984 from the Lebanese Army and returned in 1993.
South Lebanon Army: 7 M48A5s captured in 1984 from the Lebanese Army and returned in 2000.
 Amal Movement: unknown number of M48A5 tanks loaned by the Shia 6th Infantry Brigade in 1988.

M46 Patton
M47 Patton
M60 tank
M88 Recovery Vehicle - armored recovery variant based on the M48 Patton/M60 Series tanks chassis and part of the automotive component
M103 heavy tank

Tanks of comparable role, performance and era
T-55 - a contemporary Soviet design
Centurion - a contemporary British design
Type 59 - a contemporary Chinese design
Type 61 - a similarly armed Japanese design

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