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M60 Patton - ОБТ (США), продолжение

M60 tank - ...ПРОДОЛЖЕНИЕ

M60A3 series

Due to the rapidly developing advancements in anti-armor capabilities and solid-state electronics of the 1970s, along with the general dissatisfaction of the M60A2, an upgrade of the M60A1 was needed. In 1976 work began on the M60A3 variant which featured a number of technological enhancements.
The M60A3 version of the M60-series had the same mobility, performance, and weapons systems as the M60A1 RISE and RISE Passive tanks and incorporated all of their engineering upgrades, improvements and capabilities.
The electronics and fire control systems were greatly improved. The turret's hydraulic fluid was replaced with a non-flammable one. This updated turret configuration was mated to the M60A1 RISE hull using the AVDS-1790-2D RISE engine and CD-850-6A transmission along with a Halon fire suppression system. It was designated as the Tank, Combat, Full Tracked: 105 mm Gun, M60A3.
The M60A3 tank was built in two configurations. The earlier version, sometimes referred to as the M60A3 Passive, uses the same passive gunner's sight as the A1 RISE Passive and the latest version has a Tank Thermal Sight (TTS). The M60A1, RISE, and RISE Passive tanks used a coincidence rangefinder and the mechanical M19 ballistic computer. The M60A3 uses a laser based rangefinder and the solid state M21 ballistic computer.
The M21 FCS for the M60A3 was made up of a Raytheon AN/WG-2 flash-lamp pumped ruby-laser based range finder, accurate up to 5000 meters for both the commander and gunner, a solid-state M21E1 gun data computer incorporating a muzzle reference sensor and crosswind sensor, ammunition selection, range correction and superelevation correction were inputted by the gunner, an improved turret stabilization system along with an upgraded turret electrical system and solid-state analog data card bus. The M10A2E3 ballistic drive is an electro-mechanical unit.
The commander had an M36E1 passive periscope and the gunner an M32E1 passive sight. The TTS configuration replaced the gunner's sight with the Raytheon AN/VSG2 Tank Thermal Sight (TTS), a Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (HgCdTe) IR detector. This sight allows the gunner to see through fog, smoke and under starlight conditions without the aid of an IR searchlight. This system provided improved night fighting capabilities.
The first M60A3s were assembled at the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant in February 1978, where the first of a low-rate of initial production quantity of 296 M60A3s were produced through October with fielding to Army units in Europe starting in May 1979. The M60A3 was seen by the US Army as a stop-gap measure as the development of the XM1 Abrams MBT was already well advanced with fielding to Europe planned to start in 1981 and notified Foreign Military Sales (FMS) customers of its near-term plans to discontinue M60-series tank production.
In March 1982 General Dynamics Land Systems purchased Chrysler Defense. The procurement of M60A3 and M60A3 TTS tanks for the Army concluded and hull production ceased in May 1983, with a total of 1,052 M60A3 and TTS tanks built as new vehicles. However the conversion of earlier models to M60A3/E60B tanks continued for FMS, with the last tanks delivered to Israel in May 1986 and a conversion total of 3,268 E60Bs. These late-production examples were upgraded from existing surplus inventories of M60A1 RISE tanks.
The Army also increased its M60A3 TTS fleet through the M60A1 Product Improvement Program (PIP) and the M60A3 tank field retrofit program conducted by the Anniston Army Depot and the Mainz Army Depot (MZAD). Depot field teams retrofitted all of the Army's 748 M60A3 tanks to the TTS configuration by the end of 1984. In addition, both depots converted a total of 1,391 M60A1 RISE tanks to the M60A3 TTS. These M60A1 RISE PIP conversion programs concluded in 1990.
Italy, Austria, Greece, Morocco, Taiwan and other countries upgraded their existing fleets with various E60B component upgrades under several FMS defense contracts with Raytheon and General Dynamics during the mid to late 1980s. In 1990, M60A3/E60Bs from Army surpluses were sold to Oman, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia.
The M60A3 replaced the M60A1 in the US Army and any remaining M48A5s in ARNG service on a one-for-one basis. The Marine Corps continued to use the M60A1 RISE Passive until they were withdrawn from combat use in 1991. They were phased from ARNG service between 1994 and 1997, being replaced with the M1 MBT. The Detroit Tank Plant was closed in 1996 with production of the M1A1 Abrams continuing at the Lima Tank Plant in Ohio.
E60 series
M60s for use in foreign military service were designated as the E60 series by the US Foreign Military Sales (FMS). These were essentially M60s with minor modifications requested by approved foreign purchasers. Some of the modifications included removal of the M19 cupola, different models of machine guns, electronics, fire control systems or radios, external armor plates, smoke launchers and power packs. Israel purchased many of these tanks forming the basis for the Magach 6 series.
This series included the following designations:
 - E60: modified M60 variant for non-US service
 - E60A: modified M60A1 variant for non-US service
 - E60B: modified M60A3 variant for non-US service
The M60A2 was never approved for foreign sales.

Army National Guard evaluations

Priority in initial M1 Abrams unit allotments was given to Active Army armored units in Europe. The Army National Guard's armored assets were key strategic elements, approximated at 3,000 tanks, and were important for reinforcing Active Army units in Europe in case of conflict. (This was particularly critical to the ARNG 86th Armor Brigade.) Without an inventory available to provide the ARNG with M1 Abrams tanks, unfunded Requests for Proposals (RFPs) were circulated by the ARNG Tracked Vehicle Task Force starting in 1983. Teledyne Continental developed the first RFP upgrades to the suspension, power pack and transmission. It was demonstrated and tested at Fort Knox in January 1985. The upgrade was not evaluated for US military service or assigned a designation. GDLS acquired Teledyne and by 1987 had pursued the RFP improvement to the armor, mounted the M68A1, and called it the Super 60. It was the reference point for the ARNG upgrade decisions submitted to the Department of the Army to upgrade its M60A3 TTS fleet. In the actual report, the upgrade is referred to as the M60AX. $90 million was requested for prototyping and $2.8 billion to complete the fleet conversion by 1999.
The M60A4 was the proposed prototype upgrade of the M60A3 TTS for the National Guard that emerged from the M60AX study conducted by the ARNG Tracked Vehicle Task Force with a projected cost of $750,000 per tank. The upgrade would have included improved protection, automotive performance and combat effectiveness, but retained the same M68E1 gun as the M60A3. After examining more than two dozen possible upgrade components for the M60A3 TTS, the task force decided on the 15 subsystem upgrades that made up the M60A4 overhaul. Since the M60AX evaluation vehicle was not in the US Army Logistical system the requested components for the upgrade were inferred to by FSCM part numbers. Survivability upgrades included both appliqué and wraparound armor, internal spall liners, laser protection, an automatic fire suppression system, an engine smoke generation kit and a new low-profile cupola. Mobility enhancements included a new 1050 horsepower engine, a new automatic transmission, improved final drives, an improved vehicle suspension and a modification to the air cleaner. The M60A4's key target acquisition and fighting improvements were an upgraded laser rangefinder, an enhancement of TTS optical performance, a modified fire control system and an improved turret drive and stabilization system. After reviewing the proposal it was declined by Chief of Staff of the United States Army General Carl E. Vuono in 1988. The prototype was never constructed.
The US Army did not view the M60A4 as a cost effective proposition for the National Guard with only a limited increase in crew survivability and the same firepower as the M60A3. The M60 tank was superseded in ARNG service by the M1 version of the Abrams tank beginning in 1990. The M60A3 was phased out from ARNG service and was fully replaced by the M1A1 by 1997. Most of the M1 Abrams tanks were upgraded to the M1A1 configuration.
Foreign upgrades
A US Congressional Report in November 1993 stated that there were 5,522 serviceable M60A1 and M60A3 tanks in the US Army's inventory available for sale or transfer to US allies or foreign nations. Of these 111 were in Korea, 1,435 were in Europe, and 3,976 located in CONUS. The average age of these tanks was 16 years and an expected peacetime service life of 20 years. The average price was US$212,898 per tank as is, without radios or machine guns and they were not mechanically overhauled. Tanks located in Korea were inspected and sold to Bahrain and Taiwan.
Of the 1,435 tanks in Europe, 1,311 have been cascaded to other NATO countries under the terms of the Conventional Forces Europe Agreement (CFE), 18 reserved for non-combat use and 106 returned to CONUS. Egypt inspected 411 tanks at Fort Hood and 91 at Fort Knox and tentatively selected 299 of those. An additional inventory of tanks from the CONUS M60 fleet were available at the same unit price for other approved purchasers.
The United States chose not to pursue further upgrades to the M60 tank series after 1978. Its near-term replacement by the Army with the M1 MBT were scheduled to start production in 1980. M60 series tanks were phased out of US service by 1997 and Opposing Force (OPFOR) training use in 2005. Together with the large number of M60 MBTs still in foreign service and a large US Army surplus inventory, several upgrades for the tank were offered starting in 1985.
There are three basic approaches to upgrade decisions for the M60 MBT. Some countries, such as Taiwan and Jordan, have sought to modernize the M60 as a frontline MBT. Turkey is seeking a middle-ground, keeping it useful as it develops more modern designs. Other countries, such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Thailand are modernizing their M60 fleets for counter-insurgency type operations.
While the market for M60 modernization is somewhat limited, because the tank is generally operated by poorer countries or has been relegated to secondary tasks, other companies have come up with more advanced Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) upgrade solutions. Additionally, several countries also funded their own design upgrades, notable examples are the Magach, Sabra and Phoenix variants. In 2005, M60 variants were in service with Egypt, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Turkey, Taiwan and some 20 other nations to varying degrees.
High Performance/Super M60 Main Battle Tank
The High Performance M60, also called Super M60, was a comprehensive update package for the M60A1 and A3 tanks, first offered in 1985 by Teledyne Continental. The vehicle was developed as a private venture for the export market and was never evaluated for US military service. Unofficially called the M60AX, the upgrade offered to increase the protection, firepower and mobility for the M60A1 and A3 tanks.
Although the US Army chose not to adopt the installation of a new power pack or suspension system in the M60 series, General Dynamics formed a co-operative private venture with Teledyne Continental to develop a comprehensive upgrade package. The Super M60 prototype was based on an M60A1 leased from the US Army. It featured the AVCR-1790-1B engine producing 1,200 hp (890 kW) coupled to a Renk RK-304 transmission with four forward and four reverse gears. This High Performance configuration was demonstrated and tested at Fort Knox in January 1985 but was not designated.
The torsion bar suspension system of the M60 was replaced with a hydropneumatic suspension system (HSS) developed by the National Waterlift Company as seen on the HIMAG, General Motors XM1, and the Jordanian Centurion (Tariq). Over the M60A1, the Super M60's top speed increased to 45 mph (72 km/h) and power/weight ratio increased to 23.1 hp/t (17.2 kW/t), despite the 9,500 lb (4,300 kg) increase in weight. Survivability was enhanced with a layer of Chobham spaced applique armor built around the turret and frontal arc of the hull that noticeably changed its appearance.
The applique armor consisted of an outer layer of high-hardness steel armor panels and an inner layer of ceramic inserts covering the base M60A1 vehicle. Track skirts consisted of Sitall and high-hardness steel for the hull sides as well as Kevlar spall liners for the fighting compartment. Like the vehicle it is based on, it retained a crew of four: the commander, loader and gunner positioned in the turret and the driver in the front of the hull.
The weapons of the Super M60 are similar to those of the M60A3. The main gun is the rifled 105 mm/L52 M68A1E2 with a thermal sleeve. The 7.62 mm M73 coaxial machine gun used on the M60A1 was replaced with a 7.62 mm M240C, with the same number of rounds. The M19 cupola was replaced with a low silhouette model with a pop-up hatch for the commander and a 12.7 mm M2HB machine gun on a pintle mount with 600 rounds. The Fire Control System (FCS) used was designated the Advanced Laser Tank Fire Control System (LTFCS).
The FCS configuration was largely similar to that used on the M60A3, but instead of replacing the optical rangefinder with an AN/VVG-2 laser rangefinder, a Nd:YAG laser emitter was installed on the roof and the M35 gunner's sight was modified to include a laser visual unit. Also, the stabilization configuration was changed to that of the M1 Abrams where the sight itself was fully stabilized and the gun followed the sight. The prototype did not have an optical range finder but one could have been easily installed.
After initial tests with only the new engine and suspension, additional modifications such as the armor upgrade intended to increase protection from shaped charged projectiles were applied. Testing conducted not only showed that the new suspension system smoothened the off-road ride, but also allowed the Super M60 to handle well in spite of its considerable weight increase over the original M60A1. As one of the first upgrade packages offered for the M60 series, the Super M60 prototype demonstrated the potential for upgrading the M60A1/A3 and was offered by Teledyne Continental as one of their many possible upgrade packages.
Even though this update package offered M60 users an opportunity to dramatically increase the combat capabilities of their tank fleets, no country ever bought the update and the program effectively ceased by the end of the Cold War. Only one prototype was built. The overall failure of the Super M60 program was likely due to the lack of immediate necessity for such a vehicle. This design was similarly developed independently by Israel in their Magach 7 series. Additionally the German company Krauss-Maffei Wegmann offered the Super M48, applying this design's technology to the M48A2/A3.
The General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS) M60-2000 or 120S was an upgrade of the M60A1 tank. The development of the M60-2000 was primarily due to the large number of M60 Main Battle Tanks in service with many Middle Eastern nations unable to afford a sufficient force of more modern main battle tanks. The upgrade was marketed at those M60 users with the industrial capability to convert the tanks themselves. The M60-2000/120S was a GDLS supplied conversion kit that married the M1A1 turret of the M1 Abrams to the M60A1 RISE hull, offering many features of the M1A1 Abrams to existing M60 users at a reduced cost.
It was first referred to the M60-2000 Program and design work began in late 1999 by General Dynamics Land Systems as a private venture for the export market and was never evaluated for US military service. Later the M60 designation was dropped because of the extensive changes and to highlight this as a new vehicle to potential customers thus changing the name to the 120S Project. The M60-2000 was test-marketed during 2000 and a number of countries in NATO and the Middle East were briefed on the vehicle. Following customer feedback, detailed engineering work was carried out and in December GDLS decided to build a functional prototype. The company rolled out the proof of concept prototype of the 120S tank at their Detroit, Michigan, facility in August 2001. It was shown at the IDEF Exhibition held in Turkey in October 2001.
The 120S was initially aimed at the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) M60 upgrade requirement but this competition was subsequently won by IMI Military Industries with their Sabra II upgrade. The Egyptian Army was considering this offer until it was finally rejected in favor of a licensed contract to build M1s in Egypt. Only one prototype was made. As of early 2009 there were no sales of the 120S tank and was no longer mentioned in General Dynamics marketing literature. The prototype was disassembled and the hull and turret returned to the US Army in 2003.
M60A3 Phoenix
The M60 Phoenix Project was Jordan's modular upgrade of the M60A3TTS to better address both immediate and emerging threats to the M60MBT. The tank is armed with a RUAG Land Systems L50 120 mm smoothbore Compact Tank Gun (CTG) with a firing rate of 6-10 rounds per minute. 20 ready rounds are stored in the turret bustle. The M21 FCS is replaced with Raytheon's Integrated Fire Control System (IFCS). The system consists of an eye safe laser rangefinder, second generation night sight, digital ballistic computer, cant sensors and a MIL-STD 1553 data bus. The M10 ballistic drive is upgraded with a fully electrical superelevation resolver.
The maneuverability and acceleration of the Phoenix is improved with the use of the General Dynamics AVCR-1790-2C engine producing 950 hp increasing available power by 20%, an upgraded CD-850-B1 transmission, new air cleaner and air induction systems, improved suspension and new and improved final drives. Survivability is improved through the addition of various modular armor protection schemes for both the M60's turret and hull. The upgrades include armor protection with STANAG 4569 Level 6 protection plates to the frontal arc, passive and reactive armor panels and side skirts and slat armor added to the bustle, protecting the rear of the turret from RPG attack.
The protection scheme can be reconfigured to changing threat conditions. It also has a 12 tube High Speed Directed Launcher (HSDL) smoke screen system using a multi-spectral smoke hardxill providing protection against thermal detection. On 15 April 2004 Raytheon Company was awarded a $64.8 million contract by the Jordan armed forces to upgrade three tank battalions.
Raytheon has been working with Jordan's King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau (KADDB) on its Phoenix Level 1 Independent Fire Control System (IFCS) upgrade and Level 2 Lethality upgrade efforts for the M60 main battle tank. Some of the upgrades included passive spaced armor packages, IR jammers and an ammunition containment system for the turret bustle. A $46.6M contract with the Jordan Armed Forces was authorized in 2012 to upgrade one battalion of their Phoenix main battle tanks.
Raytheon M60A3 SLEP
Raytheon in conjunction with other partners offered the M60 Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) for the M60A3 in May 2016. It has been marketed for export to nations that need the performance improvements to take on modern armor threats. The SLEP is offered as a collection of modular upgrades for the tank's firepower, mobility, and protection. This allows for SLEP customization to each user's needs. Its firepower improvements features the 120 mm M256/L44 smoothbore main gun as used on the M1A1 Abrams. It is fitted with a load assist system allowing for a firing rate of 6 to 10 rounds per minute and 20 ready-rounds in the turret bustle.
The Raytheon Integrated Fire Control System (IFCS) integrating an eye safe laser rangefinder, second generation gunner's night sight, digital ballistic computer, cant sensors, a fully electrical superelevation resolver and a MIL-STD 1553 data bus, giving the system capabilities similar to the M1AD standard. Other turret upgrades offered are the Curtis-Wright Gun Turret Drive and replacing the M19 cupola with a Hitrole remote controlled weapon system, that enables 360° panoramic surveillance from a secure position inside the tank armed with a M2HB .50cal machine gun.
Suspension and mobility upgrades include an upgraded AVCR-1790-2C engine producing 950 hp and improved hydropneumatic suspension. The installation of an Automatic Fire and Explosion Sensing and Suppressing system (AFSS) that improves soldier survivability and protects the engine compartment as standard. Upgraded armor protection with STANAG 4569 Level 6 protection plates to the frontal arc and side skirts and slat armor added to the bustle, protecting the rear of the turret from RPG attack. These changes increased the vehicle weight to 62-63 tons.
Leonardo M60A3 SLEP
The Leonardo M60A3 is a modular SLEP upgrade for the M60MBT offered in 2017 by the defense company Leonardo DRS. The upgrade is intended to offer nations already operating the M60 a modular upgrade solution for their vehicles to offer capabilities more in line with third-generation main battle tanks. It was unveiled 17 October 2017 at the Bahrain International Defense Exhibition and Conference (BIDEC). It has been marketed as an alternative upgrade to the Raytheon SLEP upgrade for M60MBT modernization.
Upgrades offered in this package include a new 120/45 gun from the Centauro II that offers a weight saving of 500 kg over the older 120/44 gun due to a redesigned light alloy cradle and muzzle brake. The old commander's cupola is completely removed and replaced instead with an armored circular ballistic plate protected with slat armor. This also offers a weight reduction compared to the original M19 cupola as used on the M60A3. For close defense, the turret is also fitted with the HITROLE-L 12.7 mm remotely operated weapons system.
The turret has been refitted with a new set of hydraulic and servo control improving performance. The rest of the vehicle is completely overhauled including the torsion bars, brakes, fuel supply, electric system, wheels, seals, paint, and smoke grenades. The vehicle has also been retrofitted with the Automatic Fire and Explosion Sensing and Suppression System (AFSS). It is equipped with the LOTHAR gun sight, DNVS-4 Driver's Night Vision Sight and TURMS digital fire control system. a daytime TV camera, and an eye-safe Laser range finder. IED jamming systems and a laser warning receiver systems developed by Leonardo are optionally offered.
Armor improvements include a whole new passive protection suite fitted around the M60's existing cast armor turret and hull that is claimed to meet STANAG Level 6 standards. Protection for the turret is optimized for protection against kinetic energy (KE) weapons and artillery across the frontal arc. The hull to is upgraded to the same standard with the protection covering the hull sides extending to the third roadwheel. For the rear of the turret, slat armor is provided with an emphasis on protecting against the RPGs.
Mobility is improved via either a full refurbishment of the existing power packs or an upgrade. The new powertrain offered is stated to deliver up to 20% more power without high costs and avoiding the need for any modifications to the existing hull. This AVDS-1790-5T 908 hp engine replaces the 750 hp engine and is connected to an upgraded CD-850-B1 transmission. It was unveiled at the Bahrain International Defense Exhibition and Conference (BIDEC) at Manama, Bahrain in 2017.
US service history
Fifteen of the early examples of the M60 produced had insufficient hull armor thickness, and were therefore used by the Armor School at Fort Knox to train tank crewmembers and maintenance personnel.
The M60 AVLB and M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle were the only variants of the M60 series deployed to South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The M728 was used in fire support, base security, counter ambush fire, direct assault of fortified positions, and limited reconnaissance by fire. The AVLB provided gap crossing capabilities when required to support armored forces. M60 tanks were deployed at this time to West Germany during the Cold War to support US Army operations and participated in annual REFORGER exercises as well as Armed Forces Day parades in West Berlin until 1991. The M60 was also deployed to Korea to support US Forces Korea and participated in bi-annual Exercise Team Spirit maneuvers with South Korea notably with the US 2nd Infantry Division until 1991.
On 12 October 1973, President Nixon authorized Operation Nickel Grass that transferred M60 tanks to support Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. On 21 August 1976, President Ford conferred with Henry Kissinger and green lighted Operation Paul Bunyan with a platoon of M60A1s reinforcing elements of the US 9th Infantry Regiment (Task Force Vierra) at the south end of the Bridge of No Return in response to the Korean axe murder incident.
M60 tanks participated in Operation Urgent Fury in 1983. Marines from G Company of the US 22nd Marine Assault Unit equipped with Amphibious Assault Vehicles and four M60A1 tanks landed at Grand Mal Bay on October 25 and relieved the Navy SEALs the following morning, allowing Governor Scoon, his wife, and nine aides to be safely evacuated. The Marine tank crews faced sporadic resistance, knocking out a BRDM-2 armored car. G Company subsequently overwhelmed the Grenadian defenders at Fort Frederick. The 1st Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment deployed with M60A1s to Beirut and were present during the subsequent October 23 Beirut barracks bombing near the Beirut International Airport during the ongoing Lebanese Civil War.
M60A1s have been historically used for ground force adversarial work during Exercise Red Flag as well as in close air support trials with the F-16 at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada in the 1980s. During Operation Desert Storm in the Gulf War of 1991, at least one US Air Force unit was equipped with M60 tanks. The 401st TFW (P), deployed to Doha, Qatar had two M60A3 tanks for use by explosives ordnance disposal personnel. It was planned that using the tanks would allow the EOD crews to remove unexploded ordnance from tarmac runway and taxiway surfaces with increased safety.
M60A1s of the 1st Marine Division Task Force Ripper led the drive to the Kuwait International Airport on 27 February 1991. Task Force Ripper's M60A1 tanks destroyed about 100 Iraqi tanks and armored personnel carriers, including T-72 tanks. The division commander Maj. Gen. J.M. Myatt said, "During the first day of combat operations 1st Platoon, D Company, 3rd Tank Battalion destroyed 15 Iraqi tanks". The Marines also destroyed 25 APCs and took 300 prisoners of war. The next day, Marine M60A1 tanks encountered a minefield and attempted to proof two lanes with the MCRS. Both were unsuccessful. One MCRS missed a mine, which blew apart a track of the tank pushing it, immobilizing the tank and blocking the lane. The 1st Marine Division encountered more Iraqi opposition as it proceeded north coming into contact with the Iraqi 15th Mechanized Brigade, 3rd Armored Division. During this engagement the Marines destroyed an additional 46 enemy vehicles and took approximately 929 POWs. Once the 1st Marine Division reached Kuwait International Airport they found what remained of the Iraqi 12th Armored Brigade, 3rd Armored Division defending it. The Marines destroyed 30 to 40 Iraqi T-72 tanks which had taken up defensive positions around the airport.
After the conclusion of Operation Desert Storm, FORSCOM withdrew the M60 tank series from combat use and replaced it with the M1A1 Abrams for both the Army and Marine Corps. It was relegated to CONUS use with the Army National Guard through most of the 1990s. In May 1997, at Fort Riley, 1st Battalion, 635th Armor, Kansas Army National Guard, retired the last M60 series tanks in the US military. The 58 M60A3 tanks of the Kansas Guard's only armor battalion were unceremoniously parked in a holding pen at the Camp Funston Mobilization and Training Equipment Site (MATES), in the Kansas River Valley, down the hill from Fort Riley's main post. They were later transferred to the Jordanian Army.
Due to the restructuring of forces at the end of the Cold War, surplus US Army M1A1s were absorbed by the US Marines replacing their M60A1s on a one for one basis, allowing the Marine Corps to quickly become an all-M1 tank force at reduced cost. Except for a small number in TRADOC service for the combat training of units in Europe, most M60s were placed in reserve. Some 1,400 were transferred to NATO allies from 1991 to 1993 under the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and some were sold, mainly to Middle Eastern countries. Tanks were given to a few nations under governmental grants. They were finally declared as excess to US needs in 1994. They were superseded in National Guard service by the M1 version of the Abrams MBT and fully replaced by the M1A1.
After being retired from combat use in 1991, 18 M60A3s, with the M19 cupola removed, continued in active Army service to provide tactical combat training to US and NATO forces in Europe. They were fitted with the Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES), given the mission to provide tactical engagement simulation for direct fire force-on-force training and were maintained at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC) near Hohenfels, Germany. They were used in the OPFOR Surrogate (OPFOR(S)) role by D Company 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment (Team Dragon) until May 2005. After their service as training aids, these examples were demilitarized and placed as target hulks on various firing ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area. They were replaced in this role by the Tonka tank (unofficial name) - an M113 OSV-T with a mock turret.
The large number of M60 series tanks still in the Army's CONUS inventory in 1994 were declared as excess to requirements and disposal of them began through grant programs or demilitarization at additional costs to the US government. As of 2015, the US Army and Air Force continue to use QM60s on a limited basis as targets for the testing of radar and weapons systems. They are also salvaged for parts to maintain other vehicles still in service. One M60A1 hull was leased to General Dynamics for development of the M60-2000/120S during 2000-2001.
The M68 105 mm Gun has been used for the M1128 Stryker MGS. Many are on public display in parks and museums or veteran service organizations as well as gate guards at military bases. Some 100 M60s are to be placed as artificial reefs off New Jersey and the Gulf coasts of Florida and Alabama accessible to scuba divers. The United States Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command (TACOM-LCMC) has directed that the M728, M60AVLB and QM60-series target vehicles are to be withdrawn from use and logistical support by 2024 with any units remaining to be demilitarized and sold for scrapping through the DLA Disposition Services Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DLADS-DRMO).
XM60: Conceptual prototypes using modified M48A2/M68 hulls and T95 turrets. Four different variants using 90 mm, 105 mm and 120 mm guns. Developed in 1957.
M60: Featured the M68 105 mm main gun in the clamshell shaped Patton-styled T95E5 turret and several component improvements as well as the AVDS-1790-2A diesel engine and improved hull design. Some early production units did not have the commander's cupola.
M60E1: Proof of concept prototype for the M60A1 mating an M60 hull to the T95E7 turret.
M60A1: First variant to feature the distinctive "needle-nose" long nosed T95E7 turret, M73A1 coaxial machine gun along with increased hull armor protection, improved hydraulics and AVDS-1790-2A TLAC engine.
M60A1 AOS: Add-On Stabilization, introduced in 1972 for the M68 gun. M73A1 coaxial machine gun redesignated M219.
M60A1 AOS+: M60A1 fitted with the TLAC & AOS upgrades and T142 track.
M60A1 RISE: Reliability Improvement Selected Equipment, hull upgrade featuring AVDS-1790-2C RISE engine and redesigned hull electrical system allowing for easier access, servicing and removal, several automotive component upgrades, incorporated TLAC & AOS upgrades as well as the T142 track.
M60A1 RISE+: Passive night vision for gunner and commander, retrofitted with M68E1 main gun and M240C coaxial machine gun.
M60A1 RISE Passive: Incorporated all previous upgrades plus Kevlar turret spall liners, AVDS-1790-2D RISE engine and VEESS smoke system, deep water fording kit. US Marines outfitted with explosive reactive armor (ERA) in the late 1980s.
XM66: Conceptual prototypes for development of the T95E7 Type A, Type B and Type C turret designs.
M60A1E1: Developmental test vehicles consisting of XM81 152 mm gun-missile launchers mounted in T95E7 Type A turrets fitted to M60 hulls. 3 M60E1 tanks were used.
M60A1E2: Prototype M60A1 hull mated to a compact T95E7 Type B turret design carrying the XM81E13 gun and accepted as M60A2.
M60A1E3: Prototype, M60A1E2 Type B turret fitted with M68 105 mm gun.
M60A1E4: Experimental concept type with remote control weapons. One Type C turret mock-up built.
M60A2: Featured the M162 gun/launcher and compact turret fitted with Ford Aerospace M51 MCS. First variant to use a laser range finder.
M60A3: turret upgrade fitted with a laser range finder, M21 solid state ballistic computer, a crosswind sensor, the ability to mount ERA. Sometimes referred to as the M60A3 Passive.
M60A3 TTS: Tank Thermal Sight; M60A3 fitted with the Raytheon AN/VSG-2 thermal sight.
M60AX: unfunded ARNG Request for Proposal upgrade of the M60 tank. One M60AX unoffical prototype built by GDLS.
M60A4: proposed upgrade for ARNG tanks, never built.
QM60: M60A1/A3 designation for target vehicles.
M60 AVLB: armored vehicle-launched bridge with 60-foot (18 m) scissors bridge mated to the M60 hull.
M60 AVLM: M60 Armored Vehicle Launched Bridge (AVLB) with up to 2 vehicle mounted M58 MICLICs. To employ the system, the vehicle cannot be carrying a bridge. The system consists of an M147 firing kit, an M58A3 line charge and a 5-inch MK22 Mod 4 rocket. The line charge is 350 feet long and contains 5 pounds per linear foot of C-4 explosive. In the event a MICLIC fails to detonate normally, it can be manually activated by time-delay fuses every few feet along the length of it.
M60VLPD 26/70E: Spanish Army bridgelayer based on the M60 with "Leguan bridge system". 12 converted from M60A1 hulls.
M60 Tagash AVLB: Israeli variant of the M60AVLB. Upgraded with Merkava-based track and suspension, upgraded engine and 2 Tzmed tandem bridge sections.
XM1060 ROBAT (Robotic Obstacle Breaching Assault Tank): A former M60A3 tank without its turret configured to clear mine fields and mark cleared lanes and also to detect chemical, biological, and nuclear agents. It was fitted with a M1 MRCS mine roller and 2 M147 Line Charge Firing Kits. The crew may operate the vehicle via remote control by a fiber-optic video link, or the commander and driver sit in tandem in two armored pods fitted with an NBC protection system. The ROBAT fires an M58 MICLIC line charge filled with explosive over a minefield and then proofs the lane with a M1 MCRS. A Cleared Lane Marking System (CLAMS) dispenses day or chem-illuminescent light sticks from the rear to mark the cleared lane. Developed during the early 1980s and was canceled by 1988.
M60 Panther MDCV (Mine Detection and Clearing Vehicle): M60 without a turret fitted with countermine systems used by US forces during operations Joint Endeavor and Joint Task Force Eagle. The Panther can have a 2-man crew or be used as a remotely controlled vehicle. It is used to proof lanes and assembly areas. The system consists of a turretless M60 tank, Israeli Pearson mine rollers, an antimagnetic actuating device, and a Standardized Teleoperation System (STS) that is mounted in a separate vehicle. Additionally, a remote video camera allows the operator to see the road ahead. Only 6 built from former M60A3s, withdrawn from use by 2000 and superseded in role by IPM1 Panther 2.
M88 ARV (Armored Recovery Vehicle): Armored recovery vehicle based on M60 chassis.
Al-Monjed M60 ARV (Armored Recovery Vehicle): Jordanian M60 ARV variant. Starting in 1996, the King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau (KADDB) began the conversion of 82 M60A1 RISE hulls into ARVs. The vehicle is based on the M60A1 RISE hull with an upgraded AVDS-1790-2DR engine. The turret has been replaced with a welded armored superstructure that provides protection from small arms and shell fragments. For recovery operations a turntable mounted hydraulically operated crane fitted with a telescopic jib is mounted on the front right side of the chassis. Additionally a hydraulically operated winch is located in the lower forward part of the chassis and leads out through the front of the vehicle. It has a front-mounted blade that can be used for vehicle stabilization or as a dozer blade.The vehicle is armed with a M2HB machine gun.
M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle: Combat Engineer Vehicle fitted with a folding A-frame crane and winch attached to the front of the turret, and an M135 165 mm demolition gun mated to the M60 hull.
M60CZ-10/25E Alacran: Spanish Army combat engineer variant. The main gun was replaced with a back hoe and is armed with a machine gun. Based on the M60A1 RISE hull.
Additional equipment
M9 Bulldozer Kit for the M60 series: (LIN B45390): The M9 bulldozer installed on the M60-series tank will increase the vehicle weight by 4.45 tons (4.04 metric tons). It is used to clear obstacles, leveling ground, filling depressions and to construct fighting positions. It is not to be used for demining activities. It is controlled by the driver.
M1 Mine Clearing Roller System (MCRS) (LIN M18157): The MCRS is installed on the front of the tank through a removable adapter, and provides the capability for neutralization of Anti-Tank (AT) land mines, which are buried or laid on the surface, in the track path of the vehicle. The MCRS consists of two roller banks with two push arm assemblies. Each roller bank has four rollers, which apply ground pressure higher than that exerted by the tank. This principle ensures the explosion of pressure fused anti tank mines, which would otherwise explode under the track itself. Additionally a Magnetic Actuating Device (MAD) is connected between the two roller banks. The system weighs 10 short tons (9.07 metric tons).
Vehicle Magnetic Signature Duplicator (VEMSID): (LIN V53112) The VEMSID increases the effectiveness and survivability of countermine equipment by causing the stand-off detonation of magnetic influence mines at a safe distance ahead of the tank. It generates a multi-axial magnetic signature optimized for passively fused magnetic influence fused mines. The system comprises four emitter coils, two associated power boxes and a MSD Control Unit (MSDCU).
Pearson D7 Surface Mine Plow (SMP) (LIN B71620): It is a track-width plow designed to skim the surface of a flat roadway or trail, not to defeat buried mines. It is controlled by the driver.
Track Width Mine Plow (TWMP) (LIN B71621): The Track Width Mine Plough (TWMP) uses a raking action to clear a safe path by bringing concealed or buried mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to the surface and moving them wide and clear of the vehicle. It can be fitted with a MAD to counter magnetic influence fused mines.
Full Width Mine Rake (FWMR) (LIN B51986): A rake assembly for unearthing and disposing of buried and surface laid mines in sand and loose earth. It was specifically designed and fabricated for use in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The tank needs to have the M9 Buldozer Kit or a SMP installed first to employ the rake. It consists of a V-shaped tined plough that performs countermine activities by lifting buried mines with its tines and pushing them to the side as the vehicle moves forward. The FWMR also uses an aluminum skid shoe which protrudes from the front of the tines to allow the rake to maintain a consistent plowing depth. It clears a path measuring 180 inches wide, accommodating heavy tanks and other armored vehicles. Additional features are that it weighs 4000 pounds and is easily assembled and installed.
E60 series: Foreign Military Sales designation for the M60 series
E60: modified M60 variant for non-US service.
E60A: modified M60A1 variant for non-US service.
E60B: modified M60A3 variant for non-US service. Late conversion E60B tanks sold to Israel omitted the commander's cupola.
Iranian variants: All Iranian M60A1s were locally modified and given different local names.
Zulfiqar (the legendary sword of Ali): Iranian M60A1 variant. Armed with a Russian 2A46 125 mm smoothbore main gun.
Samsam (Sword): Iranian upgraded version of M60A1 tank, fitted with reactive armor (presumably Kontakt-5), EFCS-3 Fire Control system, Laser warning system and IR jammers.
Israeli variants: Many of the Israeli M60s have been upgraded with additional reactive or passive armor, drastically improving their armor protection. These up-armored versions are referred to as the Magach series.
Magach 6: Modernized M60/M60A1/M60A3. Fitted with the Urdan low profile cupola and Blazer ERA. Different configurations exist.
Magach 7: M60A1/A3 with 908 hp AVCR-1790-5A engine, additional passive armor, new fire control and Merkava-based tracks. Different configurations exist.
Pereh or Onager: an Israeli guided missile carrier, disguised as a tank. Based on the M60A1/A3 hull and Magach 7 component upgrades.
Turkish variants: As a member of NATO, Turkey acquired a large fleet of M60A1 and A3 tanks. Many of them have been upgraded to the Sabra variant.
M60T Sabra Mk I: Turkish modernized M60A1/E60A variant with upgraded AVCR-1790 900 hp engine and suspension. Armed with M68T 105 mm gun. Some retained the M19 cupola and were fitted with ERA packages and steel side skirts.
M60T Sabra Mk II: Turkish M60A3/E60B upgrade of the Sabra M60MBT carried out in 2008. It features a MG251-LR 120 mm main gun carrying 43 rounds, Elbit Knight fire control system, hybrid electrohydraulic turret drive, Orlite modular passive and ERA armor packages, SLAT armor for the turret, external armor plating to the hull front. Fitted with M19 style cupola. The power pack consisted of a 1,000 hp German RENK MTU 881 diesel engine coupled to a RENK 304S transmission and the same suspension and track assembly as the Merkava IV MBT. Most upgraded to the Mk III configuration. Last 170 delivered in April 2010.
M60T Sabra Mk III: same as the Mk II featuring improved modular armor. Cupola replaced with a Commanders Remote Operated Weapons System (CROWS).
FIRAT-M60T or M60TM: Turkish local enhancement of the M60T Mk III Sabra main battle tank unveiled in 2019. Fitted with a commander's independent thermal viewer (CITV), a new and locally developed Aselsan Volkan-M fire control system, an RWR/IR warning system and Aselsan PULAT active protection system. Tanks undergoing the modernization are expected to be fully completed by the end of 2021.
High Performance/Super M60: Teledyne Continental upgrade package for the M60A1/A3 offered in 1985. Features 105 mm M68A1 gun, new engine and suspension system, Chobham spaced applique armor for the turret, and other component improvements. One prototype built.
M60-2000/120S: M60/Abrams hybrid vehicle developed by General Dynamics Land Division in 2001. One prototype built.
M60 Phoenix: Jordanian upgrade, carried out in 2004 by the King Abdullah II Design And Development Bureau. Upgrade features increased firepower (with a RUAG 120 mm smoothbore gun), IR jammers and modular armor protection scheme upgrade.
Raytheon M60A3 SLEP: Raytheon modular update package for the M60A1/A3 first offered in 2016. Features RUAG 120 mm gun with autoloader, digital fire control system, STANAG level 6 armor plates for the hull, SLAT armor for the turret bustle, upgraded engine, and other component improvements.
RTA M60 MBT: Elbit Systems 2016 upgrade of the M60MBT for the Royal Thai Army. Upgrades for this package include upgraded AVDS-1790-2 engine, RENK 304-S transmission, new tracks and suspension systems. A 120 mm MG253 cannon with M932 APAM (Anti-Personnel, Anti-Material) and LAHAT munitions, Iron Fist active protection system, new turret drives and Urdan cupola. Some have been fitted with a metal framework along the side of the vehicle filled with logs.
Leonardo M60A3 SLEP: M60A3 SLEP modular upgrade package offered by Leonardo DRS in 2017.
Taiwanese M60A3 Update: Taiwanese 2019 SLEP modular update of the M60A3 in conjunction with Elbit Systems. Upgrades includes MG251/L44 120 mm gun with a semi-automatic load assist, Elbit Knight Independent Fire Control System (IFCS) with an independent thermal commander's sight, laser range finder, an RWR/IR warning system and Curtis-Wright electric turret drive. Improved hull suspension, improved NBC protection system and modular active and reactive armor packages.
_ - M60 - M60A1 - M60A2 - M60A3
Overall length (gun forward) - 366.5 in (9.3 m) - 371.5 in (9.4 m) - 288.7 in (7.3 m) - 371.5 in (9.4 m)
Overall width - 143 in (3.6 m)
Height over cupola periscope - 126.5 in (3.2 m) - 128.2 in (3.3 m) - 130.3 in (3.3 m) - 129.2 in (3.3 m)
Ground clearance - 15.3 in (38.9 cm)
Top speed - 30 mph (48 km/h)
Fording - 48 in (1.2 m) (w/o kit)
Max. grade - 60%
Max. trench - 8.5 ft (2.6 m)
Max. wall - 36 in (0.9 m)
Range - 300 mi (480 km) - 280 mi (450 km)
Power - 750 hp (560 kW) at 2400 rpm
Power-to-weight ratio - 14.7 hp/ST (12.1 kW/t) - 14.3 hp/ST (11.8 kW/t) - 13.1 hp/ST (10.8 kW/t)
Torque - 1,710 lb⋅ft (2,320 N⋅m) at 1800 rpm
Weight, combat loaded - 102,000 lb (46,270 kg) - 105,000 lb (47,630 kg) - 114,000 lb (51,710 kg) - 114,600 lb (51,980 kg)
Ground pressure - 10.9 psi (75 kPa) - 11.2 psi (77 kPa) - 12.3 psi (85 kPa)
Main armament - 105 mm M68 - 152 mm M162 Gun/Launcher (including up to 13 missiles) - 105 mm M68E1
Elevation, main gun - +19° -9° - +20° -10°
Traverse rate - 15 seconds/360° - 16 seconds/360° - 9.1 seconds/360° - 16 seconds/360°
Elevation rate - 4°/second - 10°/second - 4°/second
Main gun ammo - 57 rounds - 63 rounds - 46 rounds - 63 rounds
Firing rate - 7 rounds/minute - 4 rounds/minute - 7 rounds/minute


Current operators
 Afghanistan: 63 M60A3 TTS were donated in 2009 from Greece to replace the ANA's aging Soviet era tanks. All were kept in reserve.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina: 45 M60A3 TTS transferred from US in 1996 under Train and Equip Program with all in service as of 2008.
 Bahrain: 180 M60A3 TTS excess US Forces Korea stocks. Last 54 were delivered in 1992 and as of 2014 60 were in service and the rest in reserve.
 Brazil: 91 M60A3s purchased from United States. 28 still in service as of 2012, others have been scrapped.
 Egypt: Purchased 1,600 M60A3s and 700 M60A1 RISE from 1986 to 2002 from the United States and other countries. About half are in storage.
 Iran: 460 M60A1s were transferred from the US before 1979 with 150 in service as of 2010. Many were given different names.
 Israel: 111 Magach 7Cs in reserve storage. Some M60A1 (Tagesh) AVLBs still in service. All M60/E60 series and Magach 6 series tanks retired in 2014 and to be scrapped or sold. Superseded by the Merkava MBT.
 Jordan: 82 M60A1s have been converted into Al-Monjed M60 Armored Recovery Vehicles. 240 M60A3 TTS, former US Army National Guard, 182 were upgraded to M60 Phoenix.
 Lebanon: 56 M60A3s transferred from Jordan in 2008. First 10 tanks received in May 2009 were rejected for service by Lebanese government.
 Libya: 3 M60A1 transferred from Turkey.
 Morocco: 108 M60A1s transferred from US in 1981. 300 former US Marine Corps M60A1s were purchased from 1991 to 1994, 120 M60A3 TTS and 7 M60A1 in 1997. M60A1 tanks purchased in the 1990s were upgraded to A3s and 140 upgraded to M60A3TTS in 2009. As of 2015 they were still in service.
 Oman: 93 M60A3s Last 39 acquired in 1990 from inventories at Fort Knox. As of 2015 they are still in service.
 Saudi Arabia: 910 M60A1 RISE (250 transferred to North Yemen). Many of these were upgraded to M60A3s during the 1990s. 390 M60A3s purchased in 1990.
 Spain: 400 M60A3 TTSs received in 1991 and 1992 from Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty. Some transferred to Greece, others scrapped. Superseded by the Leopard 2. As of 2020, there are 34 M60CZ-10/25E engineer vehicles, 12 M60VLPD-26/70E bridge layers and 4 M60 AVLB bridge layers in service with the Spanish Army.
 Sudan: 20 M60A1s received in 1979 from United States. They remain in service as of 2014.
 Taiwan: 400 M60A3 TTS and 400 CM-11 Brave Tiger in service as of 2008.
 Thailand: 53 M60A1 RISE Passive and 125 M60A3 TTS from US Army. Still in service as of 2015.
 Tunisia: 59 M60A3 TTS and 30 M60A1 RISE Passive received from the US in 1985. As of 2012 they are still in service.
 Turkey: Received 104 M60A1 RISE Passive and 658 M60A3 TTS. 170 were converted to M60T Sabra II. As of 2018 170 M60T, 610 M60A3TTS and 752 M60A3 in service.
 United States: As of 2015 QM60s are in limited use as target vehicles for weapons and radar testing. The M60 series was retired from combat use in 1991, the Army National Guard in 1997, and as a training aid in 2005. The M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle was retired from combat use in 2000. 262 M728s in service with the US Army Reserve and Army National Guard as of 2007. Phased replacement with the M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicle starting 2018. 37 M60 AVLB vehicles in service with US Marine Corps as of 2009. To be replaced with the M1074 Joint Assault Bridge starting in 2019.
 Yemen: 64 M60A1 RISE Passives delivered in the late 1970s. As of 2015 around 50 were still in service.
Former operators
 Argentina: One M60A1 acquired in the early 1970s from United States. Never placed in service. As of March 2014 it is displayed as a monument in the Army NCOs School, in Campo de Mayo, outside Buenos Aires.
 Austria: 170 M60A1s purchased from USAEUR excesses 1982. Later converted to A3 standard. They were replaced in 1997 by the Leopard 2 and sold to Egypt.
 Ethiopia: 180 M60A1s received from the US from 1974 to 1977. Replaced with the T-72 in 1978 and 1979.
 Germany: One standard M60 was acquired from the United States for use in comparative trials against a pre-series Leopard 1 in 1964.
 Greece: 357 M60A1 RISE and 312 M60A3 TTS were received under the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty in 1991 and 1992. 63 donated to Afghanistan in 2009. Retired from service 2015 and remaining M60s to be scrapped.
 Iraq: Limited ad hoc use of Iranian tanks during Iran-Iraq War. Six Iranian M60A1s were captured in 1980 and transferred to Jordan. Any remaining tanks were destroyed after the war. It was never officially in Iraqi service.
 Italy: 200 M60A1s produced in Italy and 100 from excess USAEUR stocks in the late 1970s. Phased out of service by 2008.
 Portugal: 96 M60A3 TTS tanks from redundant US Army inventory in Europe in 1991 and 1992 as a result of the CFE Treaty. Were formally phased out in 2018 and replaced by the Leopard 2 A6.

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