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Pandur II - Бронетранспортер (Австрия)

Pandur II

Pandur II is an improved modular all-wheel-drive version of the Pandur 6x6 APC wheeled armoured vehicle. It was developed as a private venture by the Austrian company Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeuge. Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeuge is part of General Dynamics European Land Combat Systems, which is also the parent company of MOWAG of Switzerland and Santa Bárbara Sistemas of Spain.

Pandur 8X8 APC
Type - Armoured personnel carrier
Place of origin - Austria
Production history
Manufacturer - Steyr-Daimler-Puch
Specifications
Mass - 14500 kg
Length - 7350 mm (289 in)
Width - 2670 mm (105 in)
Height - 2080 mm (82 in)
Crew - 2 + 12 (APC version)
Main armament - Gun with a caliber of up to 105 mm
Secondary armament - Machine gun / Spike LR anti-tank guided missile
Engine - 6-cylinder in-line liquid-cooled turbo-charged intercooled diesel / 335 kW
Payload capacity - 8,500 kg
Operational range - Approx. 700 km
Maximum speed - 105 km/h (65 mph) (road) / ≤11 km/h (6.8 mph) (water)

The Pandur II has an all-welded steel body with optional armour upgrades. The basic armour package is designed to protect against 7.62 to 14.5 mm (0.300 to 0.571 in) armour-piercing rounds (customers may choose the armour thickness). The vehicle is designed to be transportable in a Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules transport aircraft. The driver is seated on the left at the front and the engine is to the right. The driver is provided with a single piece hatch cover as well as three-way periscopes, one of which can be replaced by a passive periscope for night missions. The vehicle is designed to take a number of turret systems (such as the SP 30 turret also mounted on the ASCOD AFV of the Spanish and Austrian Armies), or it can be used as a standard APC with a mounted machine gun. With the turret the vehicle can carry 6 infantry. Without the turret, it can carry 12.
Technical Description
The Pandur II is an armoured off-road vehicle (APC) intended for military use. It is available in two versions, a 6x6 and an 8x8 version; both versions are designed to be as offroad capable as possible whilst providing sophisticated protection for their occupants, which also includes protection against mines. The Pandur II can be used in cold (arctic) and hot (desert) climates, in urban regions, impassable terrain, as well as in waters such as rivers, lakes, and coast waters. In order to reduce the unit cost, many industrial-grade off-the-shelf components (e. g. an industrial diesel engine) were used for the Pandur II. The following description primarily describes the 8x8 variant.
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The body is made of highest-tenacity steel plates that are welded together. Thus, the body is rigid and does not allow torsion. The wheels are coil-sprung and have hydraulic shock absorbers, the suspension is similar to the MacPherson strut system. Each wheel has two control arms, a lower transverse control arm, and an upper longitudinal control arm. The coil springs are designed to have progressive characteristics, which is achieved with additional rubber springs. The control arms (as well as other suspension parts that do not warm up) are made of a chemically pure steel that does neither contain phosphorus nor sulphur (30CMo6). Therefore, the steel retains its mechanical properties at temperatures as low as -45 °C (228 K) - regular steel typically embrittles at temperatures below -20 °C (253 K).
The Pandur II's first two pairs of wheels are steered, the last two pairs of wheels are not. The front pair of wheels' steering trapezes are mechanically connected and use the Ackermann steering principle; the normals' point of intersection lies in between the rear axles. The steering system itself is a hydraulically assisted dual-circuit power steering system that is located within the Pandur II's protective body. The Pandur II is also fitted with a steering brake system that reduces its turning radius. In order to improve the Pandur II's off-road capabilities, it has a tyre-pressure regulation-system that allows manipulating the tyre pressure for each pair of wheels individually or for all wheels at once. All tyres are also fitted with stiff-rubber running-elements that allow them to maintain their basic tyre characteristics even when they are fully out of air. This includes fixing the tyre on the rim.
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The Pandur II is powered by a Cummins ISLe HPCR industrial diesel engine. This engine is a straight-six, common-rail injected turbodiesel with a variable turbine geometry turbocharger, intercooler, and heavy-duty water cooler; the water cooler is designed for outside air temperatures of up to 52 °C (325 K). The engine displaces 8.9 litres and is rated 335 kW at 2100/min, with a maximum torque of 1621 N·m at 1200...1800/min. For tactical reasons, the engine is not fitted with an exhaust gas treatment system (such as a lean NOx trap or SCR catalyst). Therefore, only the combustion itself combined with exhaust gas recirculation are used for emissions control - the Pandur II complies with the Euro III emissions standard.
The main gearbox is an automatic ZF 6HP602c six-speed gearbox that has a hydrodynamic torque converter, planetary gears, and a hydrodynamic retarder. The gearbox as well as the diesel engine, radiator, generator, hydraulic system, and the compressed air system are all put into a quick-coupling module, the so-called Powerpack. The Powerpack can be uninstalled from the Pandur II within 20 minutes. The engine can run when the Powerpack is not installed in the Pandur II (for maintenance purposes). Reinstalling the Powerpack takes another 20 minutes.
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The automatic gearbox is connected to the drivetrain with a system of spiral bevel gears that allows quick coupling. The torque is sent from the gearbox through a two-speed transfer gearbox, four differentials with reduction gearboxes, and the drive shafts to the wheels. In the on-road drive mode, 30 % of the torque is sent to the first pair of wheels, 21 % to the second pair of wheels, and 49 % to the fourth pair of wheels; the third pair of wheels does not receive any torque (8×6). The wheel slip is measured by a system called the "Automatic Drivetrain Management" (ADM). Depending upon the position of the gear selector, the ADM automatically splits the fourth pair of wheels' torque evenly between the fourth and third pair of wheels (i. e. it engages or disengages all-wheel drive), it also engages or disengages the transfer case's reduction gear, and it engages the pair of wheels' differentials in an escalating fashion. The differentials are jaw clutches with a 100 % locking rate; thus, they do not allow wheel slip. A few seconds after differential lock engagement, the ADM already turns off the differential lock. A coil spring then disengages the differential lock, which is mechanically prevented if there is still differential torque (this means that, the differential lock remains engaged even though it is "turned off", if one wheel would otherwise spin rather freely; only if both wheels have "grip", the differential lock mechanically disengages). This allows the Pandur II to keep its differentials unlocked most of the time, which drastically reduces the reactive torque within the drivetrain - with all differential locks engaged, one wheel can receive all the torque. The Pandur II's drivetrain can transmit up to 20 kN·m of torque to a single wheel; irreversible deformation occurs at torques of around 30 kN·m.
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The Pandur II has an 80 kN hydraulic winch. The APC had a fording depth of up to 1500 mm - through deeper waters, the Pandur II can swim. For this purpose, the Pandur II has a trim vane, an additional water-water-cooler (without a radiator), a snorkel, and a bilge pump. The two water jet propulsion units are installed in the Pandur II's back; they are mechanically driven through the drivetrain. When the water jet propulsion system is active, the wheels are not driven - this is because they would induce too much drag without providing sufficient propulsion. Compared against a conventional propeller, the water jet propulsion system is less efficient, but more durable and offers better manoeuvrability. The top speed when swimming in calm waters is ≤11 km/h; the Pandur II has a sea state rating of 1-2.
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The Pandur 8x8 APC is manufactured in Austria while export versions are also built in the Czech Republic and licensed versions in Barreiro, Portugal.

Versions
Pandur II 8x8
Pandur II 6x6

National Variants

Czech variants
The Czech Army use the Pandur II. In total, they have purchased 172 units.
1. KBVP
1.1. KBVP: Wheeled infantry fighting vehicle. (72 units purchased 2009-2013)
1.2. KBVP M1 RVS: A modified variant for service in Afghanistan, with additional multilayer and bar armour, improved electronics, and without water jet propulsion. (4 units purchased in August 2010)
2. KBV
2.1. KBV-Pz (kolové bojové vozidlo - průzkumné) - reconnaissance vehicle, partially fitted with a battlefield surveillance radar. (8+8 units purchased)
2.2. KBV-VR (kolové bojové vozidlo - velitele roty) - (wheeled) infantry fighting vehicle (company command post). (11 units purchased)
3. KOT
3.1. KOT-VOV (kolový obrněný transportér - velitelské obrněné vozidlo) - command post vehicle. (11 units purchased)
3.2. KOT-Ž (kolový obrněný transportér - ženijní) - engineer vehicle. (4 units purchased)
3.3. KOT-Zdr (kolový obrněný transportér - zdravotnický) - ambulance vehicle. (4 units purchased)
4. KOV
4.1. KOV-S (kolové obrněné vozidlo - spojovací) (14 units purchased)
4.2. KOV-VŠ (kolové obrněné vozidlo - velitelsko-štábní) (6 units purchased)
Annotations
1) Wheeled Armoured Personnel Carrier (...for engineers)
2) Wheeled Armoured Personnel Carrier (...for paramedics)
3) Wheeled Armoured Personnel Carrier (command post tank)
4) Wheeled Armoured Radio Vehicle
5) Wheeled Armoured Vehicle (...for - command and staff)
6) Wheeled Reconnaissance Fighting Vehicle
Portuguese variants
In 2005, the Portuguese government signed a deal worth 364 million euros to acquire 260 Pandur II armoured vehicles, with an option for further 33 worth 140 million euros, to equip the Portuguese Intervention Brigade of the Portuguese Army and the marines of the Portuguese Navy. Portugal was the first country to buy the Pandur II. The sale of Pandur II to Portugal includes an associated offset agreement for a value of 516 million euro. The Pandur II (Viatura Blindada de Rodas) for the Portuguese Army is fitted with Steyr add-on armour that provides Level 4 protection according to STANAG 4569. The vehicles for the marines are equipped with Level 3 armour and have a cargo ramp instead of the original doors.
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In 2002, the Portuguese Ministry of Defence decided that they would need new 8×8 APCs. After they had requested for tender on 14 August 2003, three companies - (Finnish arms maker Patria Oyj, Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeuge (now part of General Dynamics), and MOWAG (also part of General Dynamics)) - made their offers. In December 2004, Steyr-Daimler-Puch Spezialfahrzeuge's Pandur II was chosen; the Portuguese Ministry of Defence signed a 365 million Euro contract about the purchase of 260 units of the Pandur II with General Dynamics on 15 February 2005. The contract also included an option of additional 33 units. The first 260 units of the Pandur II were supposed to be built by General Dynamics European Land Combat Systems in Austria (41 units) and by Fabrequipa in Portugal (219 units), from 2006 to 2009; on 27 January 2007, production at Fabrequipa commenced. In March 2009 General Dynamics announced that they intended to move the production from Portugal to Czechia. On 8 May 2010, the Portuguese Minister of Defence announced that the Ministry of Defence would charge General Dynamics with breach of contract, because they had failed to deliver all 260 units. The contract with General Dynamics was terminated by the Ministry of Defence in October 2012 - until that date, 166 units had been built. Then began a process of negotiation leading to an agreement in September 2014 - General Dynamics agreed upon delivering 22 more units of the Pandur II until August 2015. The additional 33 units option was never used.
In January 2005, General Defence's competitor Patria Oyj accused General Dynamics of "misconducts during the tender and contract formation procedures". Thus, Patria Oyj called for the legal suspension of the contract awarding to General Dynamics at the Public Attorney's Office of the Administrative Court in Lisbon. Patria Oyj's appeal was rejected by Lisbon's Court in February 2005. After General Dynamics had failed to deliver all units of the Pandur II, the Portuguese Public Prosecutor announced on 20 August 2010 that he would investigate corruption charges regarding the Pandur II contract awarding to General Dynamics. However, a case was never mounted against General Dynamics, and no further action was taken.
List of all Portuguese Pandur II
4 Surveillance Vehicles
5 Anti-tank Guided Missile Launchers (variant) with TOW ITAS (Tube-launched, Optically tracked, Wire-guided Improved Target Acquisition System) missile launcher
6 Signalling Vehicles
7 Infantry Carrier Vehicles with a 12.7 mm machine gun installed in a Protector M151 RWS turret
7 Recovery Vehicles
8 Medical Evacuation Vehicles
16 Command Vehicles
30 Infantry Fighting Vehicles (variant) with SP30 turret with 30 mm gun
105 Infantry Carrier Vehicles with a 12.7 mm machine gun
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Philippine variant
The Sabrah Pandur II 8x8 Wheeled Tank Destroyer is a new variant developed and offered by Elbit Systems for the Philippine Army's Light Tank Acquisition Project. It uses the Pandur II 8x8 platform with a new turret armed with a 105 mm gun developed by Elbit in partnership with Denel Land Systems.
Slovenian variant
The KOV "Krpan" (Kolesno Oklepno Vozilo, "Wheeled Armoured Vehicle") from Sistemska Tehnika Armas is the Slovenian license version of the Pandur II with a number of improvements and with 55% of its components and subsystems produced locally. This APC was proposed to the Slovenian Army but was not bought, because the Army decided to buy the Patria AMV instead.
Current Operators
Austria - Austrian Armed Forces - On 22 December 2016, the Austrian Ministry of Defence ordered 34 units of the Pandur 6x6 EVO for 105 million Euro from GDELS Steyr.
Czech Republic - A first batch of 17 Pandur II were delivered to the Czech Army by 2012, with the remainder rolled out in 2013. The Czech army received the following variants: 72 IFVs with the RCWS-30 turret, 11 command post vehicles, 8 reconnaissance vehicles with and 8 without radar, 4 ambulances and 4 engineer variants. Two more variants were ordered in 2017.
Indonesia - On 24 November 2016 Indonesian government ordered an undisclosed number of Pandur II 8x8 APCs (including Tatra trucks and M3 Amphibious Rigs) for US$39 million from the Czechoslovak Group which has an agreement with General Dynamics to produce, maintain, and market these vehicles in Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. On 12 April 2019 a contract about the manufacture of another 22 units was signed. These units were supposed to be manufactured locally as the Pindad Cobra 8x8.
Portugal - Portuguese Army, and Portuguese Navy (Marines); 188 units.
Future operators
Philippines - Elbit Systems won the Light Tank Acquisition Project of the Philippine Army and will supply 10 Sabrah Pandur II 8x8 Wheeled Tank Destroyers, expected to be delivered in 2021.
Potential operators
Argentina - The Pandur II is one of the candidates to become the new armoured personnel carrier of the Argentine Army.

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