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Panhard AML - Бронеавтомобиль (Франция), продолжение

Panhard AML - ...ПРОДОЛЖЕНИЕ

Variants

AML-60
Known more formally as the AML HE 60-7, or by its manufacturer's code AML-245B, the AML-60 was Panhard's initial production model and included a rounded turret with twin 7.62 mm machine guns on the left and a breech-loaded 60 mm (2.36 in.) mortar on the right, with 3,800 stored rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition and 43 to 53 mortar projectiles, respectively. The mortar can still be muzzle loaded from outside the vehicle, but is unique in its opening breech locked by a falling block much like direct fire artillery. It has an elevation of +80° and a depression of -15°. Two types of mortars are available: a Hotckiss-Brandt CM60A1 or, in later production models, a Cloche Spéciale (CS) 60 designed by the French government's Direction technique des armements terrestres (DTAT), which was distinguished by its ribbed barrel. The ergonomic dimensions of the CS 60's ammunition allow ten more mortar bombs to carried for a total of 53, as opposed to the CM60A1's 43. Both can be fired on a flat trajectory and are effective at no more than 300 m (980 ft) in the direct role, or 1.7 km (1.1 mi) in the indirect role. Separate combat and command variants of the AML HE 60-7 turrets were manufactured, the latter being fitted with additional radio equipment and therefore possessing comparatively limited stowage. The number of stored ammunition is reduced to 32 mortar bombs and 3,200 7.62 mm rounds, respectively.
An AML-60's crew commander acquires targets, directs the gunner, and makes a series of ranging and ordnance calculations to ascertain firing angles. Sighting is optical, and carried out through an M112/3 combined monocular telescope and binocular periscope. Elevation aiming control is linked to the mortar but provision made for manual scanning. In late production models, the micrometre markings on the sights could be illuminated for night firing.
AML 60-20
Known as the AML HE 60-20, the AML 60-20 replaced both co-axial 7.62 mm machine guns with an M621 20 mm autocannon with 500 stored rounds. The 20 mm autocannon was based on the MG 151 and has an elevation of +50° and a depression of -8°, allowing it to engage low-flying aircraft as necessary. It fires both armour-piercing and high-explosive rounds with a muzzle velocity of 1,040 m/s (3,400 ft/s). An optional 7.62 mm pintle-mounted machine gun can be mounted on the turret roof as necessary, although only 1,000 rounds of ammunition may be stored.
AML 60-20 Serval
The AML-60-20 Serval mated an AML-60 chassis to the much larger and more sophisticated Serval turret designed by Hispano-Suiza CNMP, with considerable improvements to the firepower, sights, and ammunition stowage of the original AML 60-20 concept. Two types of 20 mm autocannon were offered: the M693, or the Oerlikon KAD B-16 (Hispano-Suiza HS.820). The original CS DTAT or CM60A1 mortars were replaced by the long-barelled Brandt 60 mm LR gun-mortar, which more than doubled the range of the main armament. The Brandt LR also fired a unique armour-piercing projectile. Due to interior space taken up by the larger mortar, the autocannon and a 7.62 mm machine gun were shifted to a new position at the rear of the turret.
AML 60-20 Servals were the first AML-60 variants to be fitted with an electrical fire-control system developed specifically for gun-mortars. The apparatus consisted of two separate control units, one for the gunner and commander, and a new rangefinder. It also included an inclinometer and was designed to allow the main armament to be fired while the AML was parked on sloping ground, without compromising accuracy. A gunner could make the appropriate corrections to bearing aim, based on the altitude according to the horizontal.
AML 60-12
Known as the AML HE 60-12, the AML 60-12 was identical in every manner to the AML 60-20 but replaced the 20 mm autocannon with a single 12.7 mm heavy machine gun. Its turret had an ammunition capacity of 1,300 rounds of 12.7 mm and 3,800 rounds of 7.62 mm.
AML-90
Formally known as the AML H-90, or by its manufacturer's code AML-245C, the AML-90 was designed for carrying out rearguard duties and substituting for the heavier tanks and armoured fighting vehicles deployed in a more linear fashion at the front. Its major feature was its DEFA low-pressure 90 mm rifled gun, which permitted the anti-tank and reconnaissance elements of French territorial units to be combined into a new component capable of knocking out the heaviest vehicle likely to be ranged against it, the Soviet ASU-57 and ASU-85. This was a direct response to Soviet airborne doctrine - Moscow's tacticians then attached great significance to the deployment of paratroopers, with their own artillery and armour, deep behind enemy lines.
The DEFA D921 was the first 90 mm low-pressure gun to be mass-produced in France. It was specifically designed for vehicles weighing under ten tonnes in mind, and the successful mating of such a large calibre weapon on the five tonne AML chassis was then considered a major engineering achievement. This made an AML-90 exceptionally well-armed in proportion to its weight, and offered the advantage of easier recoil loads over conventional tank cannon. The weapon was developed by the Etablissement d'Etudes et de Fabrications d'Armement de Bourges (EFAB) in the 1950s and partly modelled after the Mecar series of lightweight 90 mm KEnerga guns from Belgium. Unlike the Belgian guns however, the DEFA D921 lacked a smoothbore barrel, instead utilising shallow rifling with a rather slow twist to impart a low rate of spin to the discharging projectile. Its ammunition was also fin-stabilised, but improved on the Mecar ammunition by incorporating the fins as a direct extension of the individual shell, making it much shorter.
As mounted on the AML-90, the D921 has an elevation of +15° and a depression of -8°. It is provided with a co-axial 7.62 mm machine gun to the left of the main armament. The turret is traversed by rotating the gunner's handwheels, which are not power assisted. Cranking the turret through a full 360° takes approximately twenty-five seconds. A total of 20 90 mm shells and 2,400 rounds of machine gun ammunition are carried. The 90 mm high-explosive anti-tank round possesses a muzzle velocity of 750 m/s (2,500 ft/s) and will penetrate 320 mm (13 in) of armour at an incidence of 0°, or 120 mm (4.7 in) of armour at 60°. The high-explosive round has a muzzle velocity of 650 m/s (2,100 ft/s). These rather low velocity performances, although suitable for close combat, make hit probability poor at extended ranges and proved to be a serious handicap when fighting tanks. Combat experience during the South African Border War and the Six-Day War proved that the AML was decisively outranged by both the T-34/85 and the M48 Patton, respectively. Its rather austere fire control, with optical ranging based on the crew commander's estimates, was also problematic. The vehicle is unable to fire on the move, since its transmission cannot absorb the recoil of such a large gun while in forward motion and suffers excessive wear as a result. Nevertheless, during at least three conflicts the AML proved capable of knocking out main battle tanks, often by attacking from the flank or rear. The heaviest armour destroyed by an AML-90 was likely a Libyan T-62 during the Toyota War, in March 1988.
The D921 recoils approximately 58 cm and is then returned to the firing position by a hydropneumatic recuperator. It is fitted with a double-baffle muzzle brake which reduces the magnitude of the firing impulses and consequently, the average recoil forces. However, the deflection of propellant gases rearward and the resulting overpressure may cause whiplash to the crew. During runout the breech is opened and an empty shell casing ejected; the breech then remains open for reloading.
AML-90 Lynx
Also known as the AML D-90 Lynx, the AML-90 Lynx was a heavily upgraded and modernised AML-90 fitted with a sophisticated turret and ranging system. Like the H-90, the D-90 Lynx turret mounted the same D921 90 mm gun on the right and a co-axial 7.62 mm machine gun on the left. The main armament now had an improved elevation gear and could be elevated from -8° to +35°. Other modifications included the replacement of the unlit optical sights with TJN2-90 combined day/night sights. The new sights were designed around a light intensifier tube with automatic gain control to enable sighting in the darkness without the need for artificial illumination, and had a range of nearly 2 km (1.2 mi). They could be fitted with additional features such as slope compensation or tachometry facilities. A menagerie of other sights and sighting equipment were also offered with the AML-90 Lynx for export customers, including the same CANASTA night sights package and electronics suite as fitted to the AMX-10RC. The CANASTA system included a low-light television camera and display units for the AML's gunner and commander, along with a moving electronic reticle with sight angle corrections. This somewhat compensated for low hit probability from the first 90 mm round at long range, allowing for the automatic engagement of moving targets.
One of the defining characteristics of the AML-90 Lynx was the large searchlight mounted co-axially with its 90 mm gun, a domed commander's cupola with vision blocks reminiscent of the Eland Mk7, and a boxlike laser rangefinder on the gun mantlet. Two types of French laser rangefinders were available as standard, although several foreign designs such as the Avimo LV3 could also be fitted: the TCV 107 and the TCV 29. Both rangefinders automatically calculate the range to target and feed this information to the crew commander, eliminating the need for rough estimation as before.
AML-90 Lynxes were offered with a variety of new power plants, namely a Peugeot XD 3T diesel engine developing 71 kW (95 hp) for an extended range of 1,000 km (620 mi). In 1979, one AML-90 Lynx prototype was showcased with a Mercedes-Benz OM617 developing 86 kW (115 hp) but it remains unclear if this model entered production. The armament as fitted to the D-90 Lynx turret could be also configured greatly, including the modification of the D921 gun to fire APFSDS ammunition with a muzzle velocity of 1,350 m/s (4,400 ft/s), or its replacement with the considerably more powerful Cockerill Mk. III medium pressure 90 mm gun as mounted on the EE-9 Cascavel. Many of these turrets were equipped with hydraulic traverse, eliminating the necessity for manual operation. Traversing a powered Lynx turret through a full 360° takes less than fifteen seconds.
The first export sales of the AML-90 Lynx were to Burundi, which ordered 12 in 1982. Morocco purchased 20 in 1988, and another 23 were accepted by the Chadian National Armed Forces (FANT) as military aid during the final stage of the Chadian-Libyan conflict. Small quantities were also donated by the French government to Senegal, Togo, and Guinea. An undisclosed number of Lebanese and Kenyan AML-90s have been upgraded with Lynx turrets as well.
AML S530
Designed as a self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon, the AML S530 was developed solely for export and is operated by the Venezuelan Army. It carries twin M621 20 mm autocannon, with 600 stored rounds. The autocannons have an elevation of +70° and a depression of -10°. Ranging is optical and carried out by a roof-mounted periscopic sight very similar to that installed on the AML HE 60-7. The sight has been modified for anti-aircraft purposes and has a vertical field of view of 20°. It has a sun filter, a collimator with an adjustable illumination feature for night firing, an adjustable display lead for tracking fast or slow moving targets and aircraft either flying horizontally or diving, and automatic fire range estimation effective up to 1.3 km (0.81 mi). More specialised anti-aircraft sights, as well as sights designed solely for engaging ground targets, could also be installed when necessary. Both 20 mm guns are equipped with an ammunition feed mechanism storing 260 rounds each. They can fired either on semi-automatic, fully automatic, or in short bursts, with a cyclic rate of fire of 750 rounds per minute per barrel. One barrel may also be selected at a time. The ammunition feed is housed in the turret's elevating module, and fed from an ammunition bin in the turret basket. The 20 mm armour-piercing round possesses a muzzle velocity of 1,000 m/s and will penetrate 23 mm of armour at an incidence of 0°. The high explosive and incendiary rounds have a muzzle velocity of 1,026 m/s (3,370 ft/s).
An AML S530 prototype was first showcased at Satory in 1971 and twelve were immediately ordered by Venezuela. They were produced and delivered by 1973, but no further export sales followed. A smaller, more rounded variant of the same S530 turret with improved sights was later mounted on an ERC 90 Sagaie chassis for a Gabonese military requirement.
AML-20
The AML H-20 had a turret with full power traverse and elevation and was armed with a single 20 mm M693 F2 autocannon; a 7.62 mm machine gun was also mounted co-axially with the main armament and a similar weapon could be fitted to the turret roof for anti-aircraft defence. The M693 could be elevated from -8° to +50°. Unlike the M621 mounted on the AML 60-20 and AML S530, this weapon employed cartridges with mechanical priming and was paired to a dual-feed ammunition supply system, allowing more than one type of ammunition to be loaded at once, with gunners being able to switch between the two. It can fire all Hispano-Suiza HS.820 20 mm rounds as well as a specially developed French Type 693 sub-calibre armour-piercing round. The armour-piercing ammunition will kill any other light armoured car at ranges of up to 1 km (0.62 mi), and also damage the sides of an older main battle tank. Like the M621 single shots, limited bursts, or continuous bursts can be fired.
Two separate turrets were offered for the AML-20: the French TL-120 SO by the Societe d'Applications des Machines Motrices (SAMM), and the South African LCT-20 by Denel Land Systems, which was originally designed for the Ratel-20 infantry fighting vehicle. The TL-120 SO turret was open-topped and 1,000 rounds of 20 mm ammunition were carried. It was one of the most well-protected turrets fitted to the AML chassis to date, with a maximum armour plate thickness of 20 mm. This turret was also hydraulically powered and could be rotated through a full 360° in ten seconds or less. The gunner's optical sights were adopted from the AML S530 and a secondary periscope optimised specifically for anti-aircraft purposes also fitted. No sights were provided for the crew commander, leaving the gunner responsible for acquiring targets.
The LCT-20 turret was considerably more sophisticated, incorporating a range of night vision equipment and a laser rangefinder. About 300 rounds of 20 mm and 1,000 rounds of ready use 7.62 mm ammunition were carried. The LCT-20 was not open-topped, although for observation purposes there was a domed cupola with four direct observation windows. Denel sights provided for both the gunner and commander were effective up to 4 km (2.5 mi).
AML-30
A prototype trialled during early 1970s, the AML H-30 mated an AML-90 chassis and turret to a single 30 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.831 anti-aircraft gun and was the first AML to be offered with powered turret controls. The 30 mm cannon could be fired on semiautomatic, in bursts, or fully automatic. A co-axial 7.62 mm machine gun could be mounted to the left of the main armament. Stored ammunition was 200 30 mm rounds, and 2,200 7.62 mm rounds for the machine gun.
AML NA-2
Due to the increasing obsolescence of low pressure, direct fire weapons in the anti-tank role, Panhard manufactured at least one dedicated anti-tank guided missile carrier variant of the AML-90 - the same chassis with its turret removed and replaced by a launching system for four SS.11 or two SS.12/AS.12 missiles. Two 7.62 mm machine guns were mounted to the centre of the new system for self-defence.
Other variants
Over a dozen variants of the Panhard AML were developed to meet a wide range of mission requirements, including border patrol, airfield security, light raiding duties, and liaison purposes. At some point Panhard developed four other vehicles for these roles based on the AML chassis but designated them EPF, EPA, ERA, and EPR, respectively. The liaison model, the EPR, was turretless and carried only a ring-mounted 12.7 mm heavy machine gun. The ERA marketed for the role of raiding and harassing larger armoured or mechanised forces was similar to the AML-20, but could also carry a mount for six MILAN missiles in place of the 20 mm autocannon. The EPF and EPA carried up to three 7.62 mm general-purpose machine guns apiece. Yet another variant, the AML Eclairage, was identical to the AML-20 and ERA.
The AML-30 and AML-90 spawned amphibious models, which bore propellers and form-fitting, watertight boxes over their hulls. These were then inflated with polyurethane, allowing the armoured car to float. The polyurethane lining had the advantage of being self-extinguishing if ignited by flame, and of providing a detonation point for a hollow charge shell before it could reach the armour plate. Amphibious AMLs were propelled through the water at 7 km/h (4.3 mph) and were steered by their front wheels. The amphibious box increased the weight of the chassis by about ten percent.
Individual armies have also retrofitted existing AMLs with new armament adopted from other armoured vehicles, such as the complete turret and 30 mm RARDEN autocannon of the FV107 Scimitar light tank.
The Eland Mk7 is an AML derivative built under licence in South Africa with a number of major modifications. Although the vehicle fulfills a similar role to its Panhard counterpart, it differs both in design and construction. The engine at the rear of the Eland is water-cooled whilst the French vehicle's engine is air-cooled, necessitating a different rear hull. An Eland's hull is also somewhat longer.
Several companies currently offer upgrades or comprehensive rebuild packages for AMLs, particularly with regards to the elderly Panhard Model 4 HD engine, for which spare parts are difficult and expensive to source. Saymar, an Israeli firm, has proposed replacing it with a two-litre Toyota diesel engine developing 76 kW (102 hp). Another extensive AML modernisation programme is being marketed by a subsidiary of the Saudi Military Industries Corporation. Overhauled Saudi AML engines are supported on a horizontal sliding frame, allowing them to be replaced by a trained maintenance team in twenty minutes.

Operators

Current operators
 Algeria: 54 AML-60.
 Argentina: 60 AML-90.
 Bahrain: 23 AML-90; 22 operational.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina: 10 AML-90.
 Burkina Faso: 19 AML-60 and AML-90.
 Burundi: 6 AML-60 and 12 AML-90.
 Cameroon: 31 AML-90; ex-Bosnian Army.
 Chad: 132 AML-60 and AML-90; likely replaced by the Eland.
 Côte d'Ivoire: 20.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo: up to 17 AML-60 and 14 AML-90.
 Djibouti: 4 AML-60 and 17 AML-90; 20 operational.
 Gabon: 24 AML-60 and AML-90.
 Ecuador: 27.
 El Salvador: 12 AML-90; 10 operational.
 Guinea: 2 AML-90.
 Iraq: 300; 10 operational.
 Kenya: 72 AML-60 and AML-90; refurbished by an Israeli firm in 2007.
 Lebanon: 74; 45 operational.
 Lesotho: 6 AML-90; 4 operational.
 Myanmar: 50 AML-90.
 Mauritania: 60, 39 AML-90 and 20 AML-60.
 Morocco: 210; 175 operational.
 Niger: 36.
 Nigeria: 137.
 Pakistan: 5 AML 60-20.
 Rwanda: 15.
 Sahrawi Republic
 Saudi Arabia: 300, 190 AML-90 and 110 AML-60; 235 operational.
 Senegal: 54.
 Somalia: 15 AML-90.
 Somaliland
 Sudan: 6 AML-90; 5 operational.
 Togo: 10.
 Tunisia: 18.
 United Arab Emirates: 90 AML-90.
 Venezuela: 10.
 Yemen: 185; 95 operational.
Former operators
 Angola: Likely captured from Portugal.
 Biafra: Some captured from Nigeria.
 Cambodia: 15 AML-60s in service between 1965 and 1975. Saw service during the Cambodian Civil War.
 Egypt
 Ethiopia 56 AML-60.
 France: 905.
 People's Republic of Kampuchea: 2 AML-60s in service during the early 1980s.
 Ireland: 32 AML-20, 20 AML-90.
 Israel: 29 AML-90.
 Libya: 20 AML-90.
 Malaysia: 140 AML-60 and AML-90s.
 Portugal: 50 AML-60.
 South Africa: 100 AMLs procured in 1962, swiftly replaced by Eland Mk2.
 Spain: 140 AML-60 and AML-90s.
 Zaire: 155, 95 AML-60 and 60 AML-90.
Former non-state operators
 Al-Mourabitoun: Inherited from the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF).
 Amal Movement: Inherited from the LAF.
 Boko Haram: AML-60 variant; likely captured from Nigeria.
 FLEC: At least 2 AML-60; likely acquired from Zaire.
 FNLA: 1 AML-90; now on display at the Museu das Forças Armadas, Luanda.
 FNLC: 1 AML-60, some AML-90s.
 Lebanese Forces: 12 AML-90 inherited from the LAF.
 Progressive Socialist Party/People's Liberation Army (Lebanon): Inherited from the LAF.
 Tigers Militia: inherited from the LAF.
 UNITA: 4: 35  AMLs acquired clandestinely through Zaire; saw service during the Angolan Civil War.
In popular culture
The Panhard AML has made some major film appearances, most notably in the 1987 British film The Living Daylights, when two Moroccan Army AML-90s were mocked up as Soviet reconnaissance vehicles pursuing Afghan Mujahadeen. These examples included mounted RPK machine guns and communications not dissimilar to those in the BRDM-2.
AMLs were first portrayed in the 1973 French thriller The Day of the Jackal, and 1974 Italian war film While There's War There's Hope, which featured an AML-90 of the Portuguese Armed Forces during the Guinea-Bissau War of Independence.
Two AML-90s erroneously presented as German scout cars serving with the Afrika Korps appear in the 1984 French war film Les Morfalous.
A Moroccan Army AML-90 briefly appears in the 2018 political thriller film Beirut, mocked up as a Lebanese militia armored car passing by outside the main entrance of the Beirut International Airport Passenger Terminal.

Panhard series
Eland Mk7 (derivative)
Panhard EBR
Panhard M3
Panhard ERC-90 Sagaie
Panhard VCR
Panhard VBL

Vehicles of comparable role, performance, and era
United Kingdom Alvis Saladin
Soviet Union BRDM-2
Brazil EE-9 Cascavel
South Africa Eland armoured car
United Kingdom Ferret
United Kingdom Fox
France VBC-90

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