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Patria Pasi - Бронетранспортер (Финляндия)

Patria Pasi
(Sisu Pasi)

Pasi (Patria XA-180 Series)
Type - 6x6 Amphibious Armoured Personnel Carrier
Place of origin - Finland
Service history
In service - 1984-present
Production history
Designer - Sisu-Auto
Manufacturer - Sisu-Auto (1984-1997) / Patria (1997-2003)
Produced - 1984-2003
No. built - 1,300 (estimate)
Specifications (XA-180)
Mass - 13.5 tonnes (13.3 long tons; 14.9 short tons)
Length - 7.35 m (24.1 ft)
Width - 2.9 m (9 ft 6 in)
Height - 2.77 m (9 ft 1 in)
Crew - 2 (+16 passengers)
Armor - 6-12 mm
Main armament - 12.7 mm NSV or M2 browning machine gun
Engine - XA-180: Valmet 611 DSBJA diesel / XA-200: Valmet 612 DWIBIC (EURO 2), 6 in-line cylinders, turbo-charged, intercooled diesel / XA-180: 236 hp (176 kW) / XA-200; 271 hp (202 kW) at 2100 rpm, max torque 1080 Nm at 1600 rpm
Power/weight - 17.48 hp/tonne
Suspension - parabolic leaf-springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
Operational range - 850 km
Maximum speed - ~105 km/h on land / 9 km/h in water (XA-180/185)

The Patria Pasi (earlier known as the Sisu Pasi) is a Finnish-made six-wheeled armoured personnel carrier (APC) originally designed for Finnish Defence Forces. The first variant was produced in 1983 and serial production began in 1984. It was designed to operate with ease of use, simple structure and low-cost maintenance. The basic appearance and configuration of the Pasi is similar to most other wheeled APCs. The XA-180 and XA-185 are fully amphibious while other variants are not.
Development
In 1980, Sisu produced an XA-180 prototype for Finnish Army tests. It competed against two other prototypes, but was declared the winner of the trials in 1983. On 22 December 1983, the Finnish Army ordered a first batch of fifty XA-180s, of which nine were reserved for UN duties. The vehicle proved quite successful and more orders were soon to follow.
The vehicle's widely known nickname "Pasi" (also a common given name of Finnish men) stems from the Finnish designation "panssari-Sisu" (English: armoured Sisu). The main superstructure is mainly manufactured from 6 to 12 mm of armoured steel and the bottom is mine-strengthened, and the front windows are bullet-resistant and equipped with protective hatches. The vehicle has continuous six-wheel drive and good capabilities for off-road driving. It can take inclines up to a maximum of 60°.
The Pasi has no standard armament, but is equipped with a rotating turret structure for eventual installations of light/heavy machine guns or autocannons. It also has 8 BMP style firing ports on the sides and rear. Therefore, passengers, usually a squad of infantry, can fire their weapons from the cover of the armor.
The Pasi is popular in peacekeeping missions due to its mobility, non-aggressive appearance, and good protection against mines and improvised explosive devices (IED). The vehicle also offers a good combination of armament, comfort, mine protection, protection against shrapnel and small calibre fire, road speed, short time of learning how to drive, and an acceptable terrain mobility. It also offers more internal space compared to other similar APCs like the Fuchs or the BTR-80.
The early variants of the Pasi (such as the XA-180 and XA-185) were manufactured by Sisu Auto until 1997, when its defense subsidiary Sisu Defence Oy was acquired by Patria. The later variants (such as the XA-202 and XA-203) were then manufactured by Patria until 2003, when the then new Patria AMV entered serial production. By then, over 1,300 Pasis had been produced.
Operational service
The Pasi has seen service in several conflict areas, including Afghanistan, Bosnia, Croatia, Eritrea, Golan Heights, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Macedonia, Namibia, Liberia, Somalia and Chad.
The Pasi has also been used by the Finnish police in sieges and SWAT operations.
In 2018, Estonia deployed five XA-188s to Mali as part of the country's contribution to Operation Barkhane.
In 2022, Finland reportedly donated an unknown number of XA-180/185s to Ukraine as part of a military and humanitarian aid package following the escalations of the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War. At least one has been lost in combat.

Versions

Sisu XA-180
Original six-wheeler, carries crew of 2 and 16 troops. Empty weight ca. 12 tonnes.
Sisu XA-185
Upgraded version, carries crew of 2 and 18 troops. Has a more powerful engine and improved power transmission. Used as an ambulance in the Norwegian Army.
Sisu XA-186
Upgraded armour. Armoured and equipped with machine-assisted gun turret (.50 BMG). Cannot swim because of the heavy armour. Empty weight ca 19 tonnes. Engine and transmission same as XA-185.
Sisu XA-188
Used by the Royal Netherlands Army.
Sisu XA-200
The 200 series looks a little different from older variants due to increased armour. It lacks amphibious capabilities but can wade through water that is up to 1.5 m deep. The improved armour protects the passengers against up to 14.5 mm small arms fire. It is also equipped with modern optical aids like periscopes and night vision. The armor upgrade was initiated after the realisation that the previous armor was inadequate, even modern armor-piercing 7.62 mm ammunition could pierce the older XA-180 and XA-185 models in certain areas. The XA-202 was originally developed for Communications and Command. The XA-203 variant was made as a temporary replacement for the earliest XA-185s, and is intended to be replaced by Patria AMVs in Finnish service.
In addition to standard variants, there are numerous sub-versions for specific missions, e.g. ambulance, command & communications, electronic warfare, air defence, radar surveillance, firefighting and anti-tank variants among others.
Operators
There are five original customers of the Pasi: Estonia, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden, while a large number have been leased to other military forces of the world.
Current operators
 Austria: Austrian Army, in UNDOF service.
 Estonia: Estonian Army.
XA-180EST, modernized variant of the XA-180.
In 2010, Estonia purchased an additional 81 units of XA-188 from the Netherlands.
 Finland: Finnish Army, Finnish Navy, Finnish Air Force, Finnish Police. 425 XA-180s and 185s, 148 XA-200s.
 - XA-180, most upgraded to 185 specs, and configured with special communications equipment
 - XA-181 built for Crotale NG independent air defence unit
 - XA-182, equipped with Jantronic J-1000/Giraffe Mk IV radar
 - XA-185, the most common version, most of the Finnish vehicles are armed with a 12.7 mm NSV machine gun (one prototype equipped with the TOW 2 system)
 - XA-202 command and signals vehicle, configured with special communications equipment
Also the following versions exist:
- VIPA (ViestiPasi, communication vehicle using the YVI-2, Yhtymän Viestijärjestelmä, "brigade and corps level communication system")
 - ELSO (ELektroninen SOdankäynti, ELINT, electronic warfare) sub-version of VIPA
 - EPA (EsikuntaPAsi, brigade command post vehicle)
 - KOPA (KOmentoPAsi, battalion command post vehicle)
 - SUTI (SUojeluTIedustelu), NBC reconnaissance vehicle
 - TUPA (TUlenjohtoPAsi, fire observer and artillery command post vehicle)
- XA-203, the last generation APC replacing the oldest vehicles of the XA-185 series, except for regular APCs and ambulances
 - Ambulance
- Units used by the Finnish police are on loan from the Finnish military to police special unit and used in extreme situations
 Ghana: In UN service.
 Norway: Norwegian Armed Forces. 75 vehicles.
1) XA-185, in service with several units primarily in the ambulance configuration.
2) XA-186, in service with the HMKG and Basesett 1 located at Ørland Main Air Station.
3) XA-203N, in service with the 2nd Battalion.
 Sweden: Swedish Army. ~200 vehicles in total.
1) Pansarterrängbil XA-180/XA-185, XA-180(/185) armed with 12,7x99 mm HMG. 70 vehicles delivered from 1988, mainly in UN service.
2) Pansarterrängbil 202, XA-202S as command and control vehicles, Swedish special variant.
3) Pansarterrängbil 203A, XA-203 equipped with the turret from Pbv 302 APC's, armed with a 20 mm gun, in 7 configurations like ambulance (unarmed), AT-missile, CBRN-detection, field repairs and so forth.
4) Pansarterrängbil 203B, the turret is replaced with the weapon-station Protector Nordic.
 Ukraine: Ukrainian Army. Unknown number of vehicles donated during the Russo-Ukrainian war.
 UN: A large number of Sisu XA-180 vehicles are used by UNIFIL forces in southern Lebanon.

Former operators
 Denmark: The Danish Army leased eleven XA-185s (including ambulance versions) for use with UN troops.
 Ireland: The Irish Army had two XA-180s, formerly as training vehicles for soldiers preparing for service in South Lebanon. Retired in 2012.
 Netherlands: The Dutch Army and Netherlands Marine Corps purchased 90 XA-188s, 81 of which were later sold to Estonia.
 - XA-188 GVV (early 200-series variant) Used by army and marines, equipped with GPS and satcom, armament MG or .50cal
 - XA-188 GWT Ambulance

Patria AMV
Patria 6x6

The Patria Pasi is a military armoured personnel carrier. It was the choice of the Finnish Defence Forces to replace its aging Soviet BTR-60s. It was a result of the commercial competition between two Finnish companies, a tractor manufacturer Valmet and the lorry manufacturer Sisu, which won the contract with its prototype.
Prototypes and series
Patria Pasis have been produced in various models for various purposes. Originally Panssari-Sisu, was not produced by Patria, but by Sisu, a lorry manufacturer. The other entry as a possible armoured personnel carrier replacement for the Finnish Defense Force's BTR-60 was Panssari-Valmet, which did not win the competition.
Technically the variants of Pasi are marked with two letters XA, which means cross-country armoured vehicle, the first and second number means the power in tens of kilowatts. Therefore, Pasi XA-180 means that it is a cross-country armoured vehicle (XA) having an engine capable for 180 kW (18× 10 kW). The last number, 0, means that XA-180 is the first version of the 180 kW Pasi's.
Manufacturing companies
The name of the manufacturer has changed several times. Up until 1980 the producer was known as Oy Suomen Autoteollisuus Ab. In 1981 it changed its name to Oy Sisu Auto Ab, which reflected the name of the Sisu branded lorries Suomen Autoteollisuus had manufactured. In 1994 Oy Sisu-Auto Ab purchased Valmet Oy's forest tractor and harvester business, and additionally the production of the tractors and engines. Oy Sisu Ab was founded to function as the holding company of all the new entities and the old Oy Sisu-Auto Ab. For the lorry production, a new Oy Sisu-Auto Ab, now Oy Sisu Auto Ab, was founded.
In 1995 the military vehicle production profit center of Oy Sisu Ab, Sisu Defence is changed into a separate subsidiary company Sisu Defence Oy, which continues the military vehicle production with Masi, Misu, Nasu, Pasi, Rasi and Raisu lorries. In 1996 Sisu Defence was sold to Suomen Puolustusväline Oy, which is a state owned company. In 1997 Sisu Defence Oy merged with Suomen Puolustusväline to become Patria Vehicles Oy.

1980 Oy Suomen Autoteollisuus Ab
1981 Oy Sisu-Auto Ab
1994 Oy Sisu Auto Ab, Sisu Defence profit center of Oy Sisu Ab
1995 Sisu Defence Oy
1997 Patria Vehicles Oy
2008 Patria Land & Armament Oy

180 kW Pasis

XA-180
 - XA-180M: A mid-life upgrade to extend the use of Pasi APCs to 2030s. The upgrade includes improved mine protection and refurbishing or replacing electrical systems and powertrain components. A prototype vehicle was completed in 2014 and Patria has been given a contract to upgrade 70 vehicles manufactured in 1980s between 2015 and 2017. There is an additional option to upgrade further 210 vehicles by 2021.
Prototype history
The prototype of XA-180 was produced by Sisu Auto in 1980 for the tests. Another type, which was ordered for tests was made by a tractor manufacturer Valmet (now Valtra). In 1983 Sisu XA-180 was chosen as the armoured personnel carrier for the defence forces of Finland. on 22 December 1983 first 41 Sisus were ordered for the defence forces itself and nine were reserved for the peace-keeping activities of the United Nations. The defence forces of Finland has 425 XA-180 and XA-185 types Pasis.
Armouring
The main superstructure was manufactured from 6 mm to 12 mm armour steel. The bottom parts of the vehicle were mine strengthened. The windows are bullet-resistant and equipped with protective hatches. As for the off-road qualities XA-180 can take inclines up to maximum of 60°.
XA-180 is amphibious like XA-185. XA-186 is not amphibious like XA-202; XA-203 and XA-360 are not either.

XA-180EST

XA-180 / XA-180EST
Type - Armoured personnel carrier
Place of origin - Finland
Service history
In service - 58 / 2005-present day
Used by - Estonia
Production history
Manufacturer - Oy Sisu-Auto Ab (→1994) / Sisu Defence Oy (1994−1997) / Patria Vehicles Oy (1997→)
Produced - 1986
Specifications
Mass - 13.5 tonnes
Length - 7.35 m
Width - 2.90 m
Height - 2.77 m
Crew - 2+16
Armour - 10+3 mm
Main armament - 1x 12.7 mm Browning machine gun / 10000 rounds
Engine - Valmet 611 DSBJA diesel engine / 236 bhp
Power/weight - 17.48 hp/tonne
Suspension - 6×6 wheeled
Operational range - 900 km
Maximum speed - 100 km/h, swim 10 km/h

XA-180EST is the Estonian model of XA-180. The first version was produced in 1983 and serial production began in 1984. The basic design was based on easy usage, simple basic structure and low cost maintenance. The basic appearance and configuration is similar to most wheeled APCs.
There are 58 of them in service, two having been lost in Afghanistan. Finland had sold 61 of them, of which four were medevac models, two command post models and two command and control models. In 2005 there were delivered ordinary ones 30 units and four medevac units. In 2005 35 units of XA-180ESTs, 2006 21 units and 2007 5 units were transferred to Estonia.
Altogether there were 51 ordinary units, two command and control units, three repair units and four medevac units. The medevac units were equipped with air conditioning and floor heaters. The XA-180ESTs were equipped with Harris radios and 12.7 mm Browning M2 machine guns.
The XA-180ESTs had been manufactured in Finland in 1987-89 having been used for from 10,000 to 30,000 km. The engine will last about 120,000 to 130,000 km. Ten out of the sixty vehicles have been taken part in the Lebanon peace-keeping operations and the others have been mainly stored or being used in the military training in Finland.
Estonia wanted to buy 30 more XAs from Finland in 2008, but as a part of agreement, Finland wanted them not to be used outside the territory of Estonia, i.e. in the international operations with the coalition of the willing. Therefore, Estonia purchased 81 units of XA-188 from the Netherlands (see below). Also the price was considered to be high for the Estonians.
XA-181
XA-181s are like XA-180s, but as designation they have been equipped for the use of anti-aircraft artillery target directing radar, MOSTKA87M, earlier MOSTKA87, anti-aircraft missile launcher for ITO90M, earlier ITO90. Finland has 21 units of Crotale NG (VT-1) systems.
Crotale NG (VT-1) is an updated version, New Generation. Finland was the first operator of the system. The cost of the system is roughly 8 million euros (excluding the vehicle). Greece is another user, and paid 1 Billion French Francs in 1998 for 11 systems: 9 for the Hellenic Air Force and 2 for the Hellenic Navy. In 2002 euros, that would have amounted up to 12 million euros per unit.
XA-182
XA-182 has a Jantronic J-1000 radar target acquisition radar system including Ericsson Giraffe Mk IV radar.
Other
Some XA-180s are furnished to function as medical evacuation vehicles as well as NBC reconnaissance units (XA-185ST). Pasi is also used as an armoured fire engine to combat fires in ammunition dumps or other areas with explosive hazards. The fire engine equipment is installed to a normal APC version and does not require structural modifications to the vehicle.
XA-185
 - XA-185 APP-6 ambulance
 - XA-185 APP-6 command post vehicle (KOPA; command post) with radios and antennas
 - XA-185 APP-6 with 30 mm cannon
 - XA-185 APP-6 with surveillance radar
 - XA-185 APP-6 recovery vehicle: repair and maintenance
 - XA-185 APP-6 TOW: anti-tank missile
The defence forces of Denmark leased 11 XA-185s from Finland. Four of them were to be stationed in Bosnia, four other ones in Kosovo and three were left in Denmark for training purposes. The four ambulance models came in December, 2001 and the other four ones were to arrive in mid February 2002 and the last three ones in mid March, 2002.
XA-186
 - XA-186 has improved armour according to NATO demands
 - XA-186NO : Norwegian model, 22 units total
 - XA-186NO Recovery
 - XA-186NO Command post vehicle
XA-188
The Netherlands obtained 24 units in 1998 and a further 66 units were delivered to the Netherlands in 1999. The XA-188 is originally a Dutch export version of the APC.
Estonia obtained 81 units of the former Dutch XA-188s in 2011 which will be included into the Estonia's 1st Infantry Brigade between 2011 and 2015. These complement the 61 units of XA-180EST models which Estonia had already acquired (see above).
200 kW Pasis
Patria Vehicles Oy Defence forces of Sweden, 104 units for €70,000,000 for the peace-keeping activities in 2002. The deliveries took place in 2001-02.
XA-202
XA-202 has more room in the rear part of the vehicle and is basically designed for command, control and communications purposes. It has room for four other soldiers and it is equipped with for the possibility of 24-metres-long radio mast for directional antenna.
 - XA-202S command post and communications vehicle. In 2003 51 XA-202 and XA-203 was delivered to Sweden from Finland.
XA-203
 - XA-203S troop carrier with quick-change interior configuration with special kits for use in the casualty evacuation, maintenance, command and logistics role. Most of the turrets armed with 20 mm cannons. A 22,5 tonne XA-203S carries eight soldiers and crew of two or three and eight other soldiers. In 2003 51 XA-202 and XA-203 was delivered to Sweden from Finland and in 2004 25 XA-203s.

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