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T-54/T-55 - ОБТ (СССР), модификации, Ч-2

T-54/T-55 - ...МОДИФИКАЦИИ, Ч-2

Variants

Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
ZSU-57-2 (Ob'yekt 500) - Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG); significant changes from T-54 such as much thinner armour and one less road wheel, with a new turret armed with two 57 mm guns.
Armoured Recovery Vehicle
BTS-1 (Bronetankoviy Tyagach Sredniy - Medium Armoured Tractor) - T-54A converted into an ARV equipped with a stowage basket.
BTS-1M - Improved or remanufactured BTS-1.
BTS-2 (Ob'yekt 9) (Bronetankoviy Tyagach Sredniy - Medium Armoured Tractor) - BTS-1 fitted with a hoist and a small folding crane with a capacity of 3 tonnes. It was developed on the T-54 hull in 1951; series production started in 1955. The prototype Ob'yekt 9 had a commander's cupola fitted with a DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun, but the production model has a square commander's hatch, opening to the right. It has a combat weight of 32 tonnes. Only a very small number remains in service.
BTS-4 (Bronetankoviy Tyagach Sredniy - Medium Armoured Tractor) - ARV similar to the BTS-2 but equipped with a snorkel. In the West it is known as T-54T. There are many different models, based on the T-44, T-54, T-55 and T-62.
BTS-3 (Bronetankoviy TyagachSredniy - Medium Armoured Tractor) - JVBT-55A in service with the Soviet Army.
BTS-4B - T-54-1s and T-54-2s converted into an armoured recovery vehicle equipped with a dozer blade.
BTS-4BM - Experimental version of the BTS-4B with the capacity to winch over the front of the vehicle.
Bridge-layer
MT-55 or MTU-55 (Tankoviy Mostoukladchik) - Soviet designation for the Czechoslovakian MT-55A bridge-layer tank equipped with a scissors-type bridge.
MTU-12 (Tankoviy Mostoukladchik) - Bridge-layer tank equipped with a 12 m long single-span bridge with a capacity of 50 tonnes. It entered service in 1955; today only a very small number remains in service. It has a combat weight of 34 tonnes.
MTU-20 (Ob'yekt 602) (Tankoviy Mostoukladchik) - T-54 converted into a bridge-layer tank. It has a twin-treadway superstructure mounted on a modified chassis. Each treadway is made up of a box-type aluminum girder with a folding ramp attached to both ends to save space while the bridge is in the travel position. The vehicle with the bridge in the traveling position is 11.6 m long. When set up, the bridge is 20 m long. This is an increase of about 62% over that of the older MTU-1. The bridge is launched using the cantilever method. First, the ramps are lowered and fully extended before the treadways are forward with the full load of the bridge resting on the forward support plate during launch. The span is moved out over the launching girder until the far end reaches the far bank. Next, the near end is lowered onto the near bank. This method of launching gives the bridgelayer a low silhouette, which makes it less vulnerable to detection and destruction.
MTU-20 based on the T-55 chassis.
Combat engineering
T-54/T-55 fitted with BTU dozer blade for clearing soil, obstacles and snow in combat situations. It was used by the tank units requiring specialized engineer support. The dozer blade itself can be mounted in 1 hour and 30 minutes and dismounted in 1 hour. In the west it is known as T-54/T-55 Dozer.
ALT-55 - T-55 converted into an armoured tracked bulldozer. It has a large flat-plate superstructure, angular concave dozer blade mounted in the front and hydraulic rams for the dozer blade.
T-55 converted into a tracked armoured excavator. The turret has been replaced by a rotatable armoured cab with a boom and a bucket. A dozer blade is fitted to the front of the hull.
T-55 MARRS - T-55 converted into an engineering vehicle fitted with the MARRS Vickers armoured recovery vehicle kit. The turret has been replaced by a new design: large flat-plate with slightly chamfered sides, vertical rear, very chamfered front, and a large A-frame crane mounted in the front. The crane has cylindrical winch rope feer between legs of the crane. A dozer blade is fitted to the hull front.
IMR (Ob'yekt 616) (IMR stands for Inzhenernaya Mashina Razgrazhdeniya) - T-55 converted into a combat engineer vehicle. The turret was replaced with a hydraulically operated crane that has a capacity of 2 tonnes, capable of 360° rotation, and operated from an armoured cupola with a visor. The crane can also be fitted with a small bucket and used as excavator arm, or with a pair of pincer-type grabbers (as pictured) for removing obstacles like trees. Its jib is telescopic, which when mobile gets retracted and placed onto a cradle on the rear of the hull, that in turn gets folded down against the engine deck when the crane is in use. A hydraulically operated dozer blade is mounted to the front of the hull; it can be used in a straight or V-configuration only. The vehicle is also fitted with a searchlight. The IMR was developed in 1969 and entered service five years later.
SPK-12G (SPK stands for Samokhodniy Pod’yomniy Kran) - Heavy crane mounted on T-55 chassis. Only two were built.
MTP-3 (MTP stands for Mashina Tekhnicheskoj Pomoshchi) - SU-122-54 converted into a technical support vehicle fitted with a light crane. This conversion was carried out beginning in 1973. It is sometimes known in the West as ARV M1977 and T-62T.
Mine clearing
BMR-1 (Bronirovannaya Mashina Razminirovaniya) - MTP-3 converted into a mine-clearing vehicle. This conversion was carried out beginning in 1975. It is equipped with KMT-5M mine-clearing systems and fitted with a machine gun turret, from BTR-60. The BMR-1s were used by the Soviet army during the war in Afghanistan and more recently by Ukraine's UNIFIL contingent in Lebanon.
BMR-2 (Boyevaya Mashina Razminirovaniya) - Mine clearing tank based on T-55 chassis. This vehicle has no turret but a fixed superstructure, armed with an NSVT machine gun. It is fitted with a KMT-7 mine clearing set and entered service around 1987 during the war in Afghanistan.
BMR-2 fitted with a wide variety of mine roller designs.
Flamethrowers
OT-54 (Ob'yekt 481) - T-54 armed with ATO-54 flamethrower instead of 7.62 mm SGMT coaxial medium machine gun.
TO-55 (OT-55, Ob'yekt 482) - This flame-thrower version of the T-55 tank incorporates the ATO-200 flame projector. The flame thrower is ignited by pyrotechnic charges, and 12 charges are the basic load. The stowage tank, which replaces the hull ammunition rack besides the driver, contains 460-litres of flammable liquid, and each burst averages 36 liters. The maximum effective range of the system is 200 meters, with the stream having an initial muzzle velocity of about 100 mps.
Ob'yekt 483 - Flame-thrower tank prototype, based on the T-54B. This version featured installation of the ATO-1 flame-thrower in short stubby barrel with internal tube instead of the main gun, resulting in a decrease of the tank's firepower. There's also a circular vertical vent on the rear of turret and a sight mount level with top of mantlet aperture. Following trials with the prototype vehicle, development work on this ceased.
Armoured personnel carrier
BTR-T - Heavy APC based on the T-55.
DPM - Convoy escort vehicle.
Achzarit - Israeli military converted captured T-55/54s into a tracked APC.
Self-propelled gun
SU-122-54 (Ob'yekt 600) (Samokhodnaya Ustanovka) - Self-propelled 122 mm gun, based on the T-54A and sometimes known as IT-122. Between 1955 and 1957, 77 vehicles were built with minor differences between production lots (different commander's cupola etc.). The SU-122-54 had a modified chassis, with small spaces between the first, second and fourth pair of wheels and a large gap between the third, similar to the T-62's; and a superstructure, built into the hull, housing the 122 mm D-49 L/48.4 gun for which the vehicle carries 35 rounds. The secondary armament consisted of two KPVT heavy machine guns, one mounted as an anti-aircraft machine gun near the commander's hatch and the other mounted coaxially with the main gun. The vehicle carried 600 rounds for the machine guns. The main gun has a fume extractor positioned right behind the muzzle brake, some vehicles did not have the fume extractor. Other variations included a different commander's cupola.
Firefighting
GPM-54 [ru] (gusenichnaya pozharnaya mashina - tracked fire fighting vehicle) - T-54 converted into a tracked fire fighting vehicle. It is equipped with a dozer blade in the front of the vehicle, water tank and a spray unit mounted on the front of tank's top.
T-55 modified to fight major oil fires. Turret was replaced with twin-jet-engine mount and multiple water nozzles.

International derivatives

Afghanistan
T-55s have been in service with the Afghan Army for a number of years. Since there wasn't any kind of care taken as to what variant an individual tank may be, many T-55s have mixed parts from a number of different variants.
Argentina
T-55 modernization developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by the Argentinian company TENSA for Peru. The tank was fitted with appliqué armour on the turret, rubber side skirts, laser range finder over the main armament and a fire control system with a ballistic-computer and a mast with weather sensors mounted on the top of the turret.
Bangladesh
Type 59 Durjoy - Type 59 modernization fitted with an ATGM-capable 125 mm smoothbore gun, combined modular composite armor with ERA, and a new 730 hp diesel engine.
Croatia
T-55A fitted with additional armour in form of sideskirts and appliqué armour on the turret.
T-55 Minočistač - T-55 MBT fitted with the UZR-3 explosive hose type mine sweeping system. It was used by the HVO.
Cuba
T-55 converted into the S-75 Dvina TEL. The vehicle has a wheeled support frame for the nose of the missile.
T-55 converted into the S-125 TEL. The vehicle is fitted with a large aft-mounted cable spool.
Czechoslovakia
T-54A produced under license in Czechoslovakia. Because it was of higher quality when compared to the Soviet produced T-54A, it became a hit on the export market. Unlike the Soviet produced T-54A, it had a redesigned engine access plates, three plates fitted to the hull to reduce track shedding and oval engine grills in the engine decks.
T-54AK produced in Czechoslovakia under license. It was fitted with a base plate on the turret roof for the radio mast.
T-54AR "Rieka" (Rieka - river) - T-54 modernization with a fording snorkel. It is similar to soviet T-54AM.
T-54AM - T-54B produced under license in Poland and Czechoslovakia.
T-54AMK - T-54BK command tank produced in Czechoslovakia.
T-55AMB - Czechoslovak upgraded T-55A with Czechoslovakia-produced laser rangefinder, fire control system and wind sensor mast with thickened center section mounted on rear of turret roof.
T-55AM1 - Czechoslovakian version of the T-55AM with Czechoslovak-produced "Kladivo" fire control system with a ballistic computer, a laser range finder (different from the Russian KTD-1) on top of the gun and a cross-wind sensor mast mounted on rear of turret roof.
T-55AM1K3 - Command tank version of the T-55AM1.
T-55AM2 - T-55AM1 fitted with the passive BDD appliqué armour for turret (horseshoe shape) and hull front (fitted to upper glacis plate), sideplates fitted with extensions protecting catwalk fuel tanks, the improved V-55U engine with an integral supercharger delivering 620 hp and the R-173P radio system. The BDD armour panels consist of armoured steel boxes filled with Penpolyurethane. In addition there are cavities which can be filled with water or sand for additional protection. The BDD armour panels consist of armoured steel boxes filled with Penpolyurethane and thin HHS steel plates. The BDD semi-reactive armor adding 120 mm of protection against APDS and 200-250 mm of protection against HEAT ammunition, thus these tanks had similar protection as early versions of T-72. There is also a cluster of 8 smoke-grenade launchers on the right-hand-side of turret. T-55AM2 is fitted with additional headlights on the front fenders.
T-55AM2 Dyna-1 - T-55AM2 fitted with new armour array.
T-55AM2B - T-55AM2 with the ability to fire the laser-guided 9M117 "Bastion" (AT-10 Stabber) ATGM via the main gun. The T-55AM2B is fitted with the 1K13 BOM gunner's sight in place of the original TPN-1M-22.
T-55AM2K1 - command tank for company commanders with an additional radio set R-173.
T-55AM2K2 - command tank for battalion commanders with an additional radio set R-173.
T-55AM2K3 - regiment commander's version with radio sets R-173 and R-143T2, a generator NS1250B and a slim 10m antenna mast. Carries 12 rounds less than a standard tank.
VT-55A (vyprošťovací tank - recovery tank) - Czechoslovak ARV built on T-55A hull and fitted with a crane with 15 tonnes capacity, a main winch with 44 tonnes capacity and a secondary winch with 800 kg capacity. It was first called MT-55 but this designation was given to the bridge laying tank and therefore the designation had to be changed.
VT-55KS (kapitalistické státy) - Export version for non-Warsaw Pact countries like Iraq and Syria. A total of 2,321 was produced between 1967 and 1983.
ZS-55A (ženijní stroj) - VT-55A fitted with dozer blade BTU-55.
MT-55A (Mostni Tank - bridge layer tank) - Czechoslovakian redesigned version of MT-55. According to some Western sources there are two models, namely the basic model - also known as MT-55K - and the MT-55L with a longer bridge. Between 1969 and 1983, 1,278 MT-55A's were built by TS Martin.
MT-55KS (kapitalistické státy) - Export version for non-Warsaw Pact countries like India, Iraq and Syria. 183 vehicles built from 1971.
PM-55L (přepravník mostu) - Lightweight version that uses a Tatra T-813 truck as carrier and launch platform.
JVBT-55A (jeřábový vyprošťovací buldozerový tank) - Czechoslovakian crane tank, fitted with a big 15t crane, a winch and a BTU-55 dozer blade. Combat weight is 42 tons. From 1967, 508 were produced.
JVBT-55KS (kapitalistické státy) - Export version of JVBT-55A for non-Warsaw Pact states like Iraq. 172 produced.
Czech Republic
T-55C-1 "Bublina" - Turret-less engineer vehicle with BTU-55 dozer blade.
T-55C-2 "Favorit" - Czech driver training tank.
SPOT-55 (Speciální POžárnický Tank) - Czech fire-fighting conversion with large tank with chamfered edges placed on T-55 chassis, two spray units mounted on front of tank top and dozer blade fitted to hull front. It was developed by VOP 025 and has two water tanks for a total of 11,000 liter. Weight is 45 tons.
East Germany
T-54Z (Z for Zusatzausrüstung - additional equipment) - East German modernization of T-54 similar to T-54AM.
T-54AZ (Z for Zusatzausrüstung - additional equipment) - East German modernization of T-54 similar to T-54AM.
T-54AMZ (Z for Zusatzausrüstung - additional equipment) - East German modernization of T-54 similar to T-54AM.
T-54T (Panzerzugmaschine ohne Bergesatz) - East German development with recovery and welding equipment. 10 made on Polish-made T-54A chassis. NATO code: T-54(A).
T-54TB (Panzerzugmaschine mit Bergesatz) - similar to T-54T, but with 140-t winch. 10 made on Polish-made T-54A chassis. NATO code: T-54(B).
T-55AM2B with bin on left-hand-side of turret.
T-55T - Modified VT-55A with push bar and splashboard across glacis plate in service with the NVA.
T-55T with towing unit on the glacis plate with a mount that protrudes over front of vehicle. Front towing unit also has a flexible 'eye' permanently fitted. NATO code: T-55T.
Minenräumfahrzeug (Pz) - Prototype mine clearing vehicle developed by the East Germany. Two Versions:
equipped with KMT-6 M2, EMT-5 electronic mine clearer and a lane clearer WLWD... ...equipped with KMT-5.
T-54 M1975/1 - Experimental East German roller/flail combination mine clearing vehicle.
T-54 M1975/2 - Flail only variant of the M1975/1.
T-55TK - East-Germany received 119 Czechoslovakian JVBT-55A's between 1968 and 1979 and called them Kranpanzer T-55TK.
BLG-60 (Brückenlegegerät) - East German scissors-type bridge layer. Development started in 1965 (one year after the BLG-34 project was cancelled) and the first vehicle was delivered in 1967. Almost 200 BLG-60's were built by STAG Genthin and SKET Magdeburg.
BLG-60 trainer - Modified training bridge.
BLG-60M - Improved BLG-60 that makes it possible to attach 2 bridges together to bridge gaps of up to 36 m. Entered service from 1973.
BLG-60M2 - Because of the introduction of the bigger T-72 tank, some 30 BLG-60M's bridges had to be widened by 20 cm. It is possible to attach 3 bridges together to bridge gaps of up to 52 m now.
Egypt
T-55E Mark 0 ("E" stands for Egyptian variant) - T-55 modernization fitted with a new Russian engine developing 580 hp. It came in two variants:
T-55E Mark 0 fitted with a German AEG infrared/white searchlight on the right hand side of the main armament and a Yugoslav "Iskra" laser rangefinder.
T-55E Mark 0 fitted with DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun and German AEG searchlight.
T-55E MK I ("E" stands for Egyptian variant) - T-55 modernization fitted with a more powerful engine developing 650 hp, fire control system (which includes a ballistic computer), searchlight, laser rangefinders and appliqué armour. All those additions resulted in weight increasing to 41 tonnes. It retains the original 100 mm tank gun but the performance and ammunition were improved.
T-55E MK II ("E" stands for Egyptian variant) - Refurbished and modernized T-55 in the mid-1990s. It is fitted with a German engine developing 880 hp, M68 105 mm tank gun, Italian fire control system (which includes an Italian ballistic computer), infrared device, laser rangefinder, stabilization system, modernized suspension, six smoke grenade launchers on each side of the turret, NBC protection system, appliqué armor and armored side skirts. All those additions resulted in weight increasing to 44 tonnes. Conversions were scheduled to be completed by the end of 2008.
Ramses II - T-54 modernization. In November 1984, US Teledyne Continental Motors corporation (taken over by General Dynamics Land Systems conglomerate) was awarded a contract to upgrade the firepower and mobility of a single T-54. The modernization initial designation was T-54E but it was subsequently renamed as Ramses II. The first prototype was sent to Egypt for extensive firepower and mobility trials in January 1987 and with them ending later that year. In late 1989 Egypt signed a technical assistance agreement with TCM to support continued Egyptian trials of the Ramses II. The new set of trials began in summer of 1990. Ramses II entered production and service between 2004 and 2005.
Finland
T-55M - 70 Finnish T-55A/T-55K tanks were upgraded to T-55M/MK level. The upgrade consists of Bofors FCS-FV/K fire control system, Mecar M-1000 APFSDS-T ammunition, 71 mm Bofors Lyran illumination grenade mortar, 8x 76 mm Wegmann smoke grenade dischargers, thermal sleeve around gun barrel, 1 million cd IR searchlight, new side skirts and storage boxes, RMSh tracks similar to T-72 and a 12.7 mm ITKK 96 machine gun for the loader. Additional armour was tested, but not included in the final upgrade. Some are equipped with KMT-5M mine rollers.
T-55MK - command version of the T-55M upgrade.
KAM-1 - Finnish medium recovery tank built on T-54 hull, developed in 1984. Prototype only.
KAM-2 - Finnish light recovery tank built on T-54 hull, developed in 1985. Prototype only.
155GH52-SP-T55 - Finnish 155 mm Tampella type gun mounted on a T-55 chassis. Prototype only.
ITPSV 90 Marksman - Finnish SPAAG conversion of the Polish T-55AM equipped with the British Marksman turret.
Germany
T-54 upgrade developed in 1991 by Jung Jungenthal to meet the requirements of the Egyptian army (but was never purchased). The upgraded T-54 is equipped with additional passive armour, a new transmission LSG 3000, an improved cooling system, a new all-electric gun control system, under-armour fuel tanks "Superflexit" on either side of the hull and 76 mm smoke grenade discharges. The original 100 mm gun is retained.
United Kingdom
T-54A, a proposal by Royal ordnance to upgrade the T-54A's of the Egyptian Army to the standard NATO 105 mm gun.
T-55 upgrade package made by A F Budge, FFG and Perkins it included a Perkins Condor V8 800TCA engine, XTG-411-5 transmission, new cooling system oil-cooled brakes, Pilkington fire control system, IR25 thermal sight, and L7 105 mm gun.
Hungary
T-55AM was a 1980s modernization of the basic T-55 tank. The 144 T-55AM tanks received Czechoslovak-produced "Kladivo" fire control system, thermal sleeve on gun, new mounting for 12,7 mm HMG, a laser rangefinder, mounted over the barrel, inside a large rectangular armoured box. Hungarian tanks fitted with BDD add-on armour blocks on the turret front-sides area and glacis (known as the "horse-shoes" or the "Brezhnev's eyebrow" armour). The BDD armour panels consist of armoured steel boxes filled with Penpolyurethane and thin HHS steel plates. The BDD semi-reactive armor adding 120 mm of protection against APDS and 200-250 mm of protection against HEAT ammunition, thus these tanks had similar protection as early versions of T-72 (similarly to the Czech AM2s). The type was partly unsuccessful due to the unreliable Kladico FCS and inadequate mobility (Hungarian vehicles never received new engines). T-55AM tanks were withdrawn from service during the early years of the 2000s (decade), some scrapped, some mothballed, leaving only a handful of T-72B and T-72M vehicles in active Hungarian army service.
India
T-54/T-55 fitted with sheet steel tubes placed on the barrels to imitate fume extractors during the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war to distinguish them from Pakistani Type 59s. Later with Project Gulmohar in 1984-1999, they were up-gunned with the Vijayanta tank 105 mm guns which had real fume extractors.
T-54B modified by India.
T-55A upgraded with 105 mm gun.
Iraq
T-55 Enigma - T-55, Type 59, and Type 69 tanks used by Iraqi Brigade commanders had appliqué armour on turrets and hulls composed of 3 (hull) or 6 (turret) layers of local-designed NERA (Non-explosive reactive armor) enclosed in steel boxes, this composite armor named unofficially as "Haji". Every NERA layer consists of 3 sublayes: a 10 mm thick aluminium plate, a 4 mm thick natural rubber (as reactive element) then a 4.7 mm thick high hardness steel plate. This crude type of bulging armor is less effective than Burlington or BDD ones, but it was successful at defeating modern shaped charge warheads, During the battle of Khafji one unit is reported to have survived several hits from MILAN missiles (which can knock out a T-72M1 frontwise) before being dispatched by a helicopter.
T-55 Enigma with smoke grenade dischargers.
T-55QM - T-55 armed with NATO-standard 105 mm L7 or M68 gun instead of the old 100 mm gun. The tank was fitted with a French laser range-finder. The upgrades were done in the mid-to-late 1980s.
T-55QM2 - T-55 upgraded by Soviet technicians with a Soviet 125 mm/L52 smoothbore gun and French laser range-finder, 1986-1991.
Type-72Z - At the International Arms Exhibition, which took place in Baghdad between 28 April - 2 May 1989, a T-55 equipped with the 2A46 125 mm gun with fume extractor one third of the way down the barrel from the T-72 tank was displayed. This modernized vehicle was designated as T-72Z, which at first mislead foreign experts since it was believed that the project was based on the T-72 tank. In fact, the number "72" originated from the year of modernization - 1372 according to the Muslim calendar. The loading mechanism of this vehicle was also taken from T-72. The fitting of the loading mechanism required increasing the aft section of the turret. A stub case ejection port on rear of turret. The tank's armour protection was also reinforced through the use of add-on armour on the tank's front glacis. The vehicle also mounted the EFCS-3 fire control system developed by the Slovenian firm 'Fotona' and a new transmission. A set of explosive reactive armour is an optional extra. It is believed that around 200 T-54/T-55 tanks and 150 Chinese Type-59 tanks were brought up to the T-72Z standard. Not to be confused with Iranian modification of the same name.
T-55 modified to fire 122 mm rockets by removing the main armament and fitting a multi-barrel-rocket launcher on the rear of the turret. Reloads appear to have been stowed in the turret and passed out through a crudely cut access on the rear of the turret. It has a square sided platform mount with drop down sides and rear.
T-54 fitted with 160 mm mortar.
T-55 fitted with the S-60 anti-aircraft gun in a square sided platform mount with drop down sides and rear.
BTS-2 - Rebuilt late production BTS-2 fitted with antiaircraft heavy machine gun pintle mount and additional stowage boxes.
BTS-Saddam - Iraqi produced armoured recovery vehicle based on obsolete T-54 chassis. It's equipped with small fixed turret on left of driver fitted with antiaircraft heavy machine gun, large winch in fighting compartment covered with metal sheet framework, earth anchor on rear of hull. Like most Iraqi produced equipment it was named in honour of Saddam Hussein.
T-55/130 - Unofficial name for a self-propelled gun used by the People's Mujahideen of Iran. Essentially a T-55 with a 130 mm Type 59-1 field gun mounted in a crude superstructure in place of the turret.
Iran
T-72Z/Type 72Z/Safir-74 - Iranian upgraded T-54/55 and Type-59 (Chinese copy of the T-54A), T-72Z being the name given to the upgraded T-55s, Safir 74 being the name given to the upgraded T-54s and Type 72Z being the name given to the upgraded Type-59s. The upgrades Include the new fire control system Fotona EFCS-3B (with laser rangefinder, cross-wind sensor, ballistic computer and gunner's passive night vision device), a 105 mm tank gun, side skirts, smoke grenade launchers, ERA package, a new power-pack with 780 hp 12-cylinder V-46-6 diesel engine and new tracks. Iranian sources state there was also a plan to arm the tanks with a 2A46 125 mm tank gun, but it seems as if this project was canceled.
Safir-86 - Standard T-55 fitted with an ERA kit developed by Iran.
Safir-86 with improved ERA layout.
Israel
Tiran-1 - Virtually unmodified T-54 was in Israeli Army service.
Tiran-2 - Virtually unmodified T-55 was in Israeli Army service.
Ti-67 - a collective designation for the Israeli-upgraded T-54s and T-55s built on tanks captured in 1967 and 1973. No longer in service in Israel but many were sold off.
Tiran-4 - Modified T-54 with original 100 mm gun. It has two water cans fitted to the rear of the turret, new fenders, new loader's hatch that opens to the rear and a new antenna mount. Later fitted were a rounded stowage bin on the rear of the turret, pintle-mounted .30 cal M1919A4 Browning medium machine gun in front of the loaders hatch and gas cans fitted to the front fenders.
Tiran-4Sh - upgraded Tiran-4, fitted with Sharir 105 mm gun. It also was fitted with a newer type of antenna mount in, new infrared spotlight for the commander, an aiming system from the Sherman medium tank, fire extinguisher mounted in front of the searchlight, new headlights, centrally mounted .30 cal M1919A4 Browning medium machine gun, signal flag holders and an oil can mounted on the rear of the left fender. It also has ammunition racks modified to suit the 105 mm ammunition, new communications equipment, modified commander's seat, new gunner's seat, azimuth indicator installed, driver's hatch modified so that it can opened from the outside, coaxial machine gun replaced by a 7.62 mm Browning machine gun and the cupola mounted DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun replaced by a 12.7 mm Browning heavy machine gun, new fire control, night vision equipment, electrical system, air-conditioning system, antennae mounts on the rear of the turret, infantry tank-telephone on the rear of the hull, exhaust outlet angled upwards, additional track stowage and fire-extinguishing system installed.
Tiran-5 - Modified T-55 with original 100 mm gun. It has two water cans are fitted to the rear of the turret, new fenders, a rounded stowage bin on the rear of the turret and pintle-mounted .30 cal M1919A4 Browning medium machine gun in front of the loader's hatch. Later fitted were the .50 cal M2 heavy machine gun over the barrel of the tank gun, extra gas cans, first aid box, ring around the loader's hatch for the .30 cal, new lights similar to the ones used in the M60 Patton, a folded stretcher on the left hand side of the vehicle and an infantry tank-telephone on the rear of the hull.
Tiran-5Sh - upgraded T-55, fitted with Sharir 105 mm gun. It also has ammunition racks modified to suit the 105 mm ammunition, new communications equipment, modified commander's seat, new gunner's seat, azimuth indicator installed, driver's hatch modified so that it can opened from the outside, coaxial machine gun replaced by a 7.62 mm Browning machine gun and the cupola mounted DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun replaced by a 12.7 mm Browning heavy machine gun, new fire control, night vision equipment, electrical system, air-conditioning system, antennae mounts on the rear of the turret, exhaust outlet angled upwards, additional track stowage and fire-extinguishing system installed. It is also known as T-55S.
Tiran-5Sh fitted with a dozer blade.
Ti-67 fitted with Blazer ERA.
Ti-67s - This is the Ti-67 with many other improvements in addition to all of the previous modifications. They include fitting the American Detroit Diesel 8V-71T engine developing 609 hp, new semi-automatic hydromechanical transmission equipped with a torque converter, new air cleaners, Blazer explosive reactive armor added to the hull and turret, Cadillac-Gage-Textron gun stabilization system, installation of EL-OP Matador computerized fire control system, low-profile commander's cupola, IR detectors, Image-intensifier night vision equipment for the commander, gunner and driver, Spectronix fire detection and suppression system, new turret basket, extensive external stowage, modernized driver's station including replacement of tillers by a steering wheel, new final drives, new all-internal fuel system and improved suspension.
Achzarit - T-55 tank converted into heavy armored personnel carrier.
VT-55A captured from Egyptians or Syrians and modified to meet the needs of Israeli Army. It has a post mount forward of commanders cupola for 50cal HMG.
VT-55KS captured from Egyptians or Syrians and modified to meet the needs of Israeli Army.
MT-55 captured from Egyptians or Syrians and modified to meet the needs of Israeli Army. It is fitted with an extended antenna.
T-54 converted into an improvised APC. Rebuilt/modified by the Israeli Army who quickly passed them on to the South Lebanon Christian militias. The turret is replaced by armour screens around the turret ring and armour shields are fitted to either side of drivers hatch. Known as the Tiran or T-54 APC, it has a five-person crew and carries an unknown number of troops.
T-55M3 - Designed by Israel for by the Vietnamese People's Army. Around the turret, the tank fitted with composite armour plate protection. The T-55M3 main battle tanks equipped with an L7 105 mm tank gun, an NSVT 12.7 mm machine gun, a PKT 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, Swiss MAWS6056B Idram SA meteorological sensors, a German 1000 horsepower engine, and a British gearbox and transmission system. The tank can also be equipped with a 60 mm mortar. This variant was rejected by the Vietnamese military, however, selected elements of this variant was inherited by the Vietnamese-designed T-54M (formally T-54B cải tiến (lit. 'T-54B improved'), not to be confused with the Soviet T-54M).
Pakistan
Al-Zarrar - Type 59 modernization which can also be applied to T-54s and T-55s. In June 2015, Serbia sold its 282 modernized T-55 tanks to Pakistan.
People's Republic of China
Type 59 - Chinese-produced version of T-54A.
Type 59G/VT-3 - Chinese hyper-modernization of Type 59, fitted with 125 mm smoothbore main gun and heavy ERA. Used by at least Chad and Tanzania.
Peru
T-55 modernization which replaces the V-55 diesel engine with a Caterpillar diesel one. It was not accepted by the Peruvian Army.
T-55M1 Leon 1 - T-55 modernization designed by the Peruvian engineer Sergio Casanave. The project was named DIEDE 2005. The Peruvian Army assisted project since it began. This modernization fits the T-55 with a new fire control system, laser rangefinder and twin SACLOS 9M14-2T HEAT tandem system Malyutka 2M ATGM launchers on each side of the turret. Also the main gun is modified to fire 100 mm M-43A1 APFSDS. At least three physical demonstrator were made, but none become an operational prototype. Rejected by the Peruvian Army.
T-55M2A1 Leon 2 - Also designed by the Peruvian engineer Sergio Casanave, this proposed upgrade include a new thermal fire control system and optics, ability to fire M-43A1/M-43A3 APFSDS ammo (up to 2,600 m) and the launcher for the 9M117 (3UBK23-1) Bastion laser beam-guided anti-tank missiles with a range up to 6,000 m and 750 mm RHAe penetration after ERA, new engine developing 630 hp and new night vision system. At least three physical demonstrators were made, but none become an operational prototype. Rejected by the Peruvian Army.
T-55M8A2 Tifón 2 ((in English) Typhoon-2) - T-55 modernization designed by engineer Sergio Casanave and developed jointly by the Desarrollos Industriales Casanave de Perú (DICSA), (Casanave Industrial Developments Peru) and Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau of Ukraine. It's based on the Ukrainian T-55AGM and is almost identical with the exception of the engine, the main armament, Fire Control System with 1G46M gunner sight, PKN-5 Commander sight, and both integrated with the Buran - Catherine Thermal sight, air conditioned system, Deflek Ceramic special alloy steel armor, and Nosh explosive reactive armor. The tank is powered by the new 5TDFMA two-stroke liquid-cooled multi-fuel supercharged diesel engine with boxing pistons developing 1,050 hp and has maximum speed of over 75 km/h on the road in forward gear and over 35 km/h in the reverse gear. The main armament is the 125 mm KBM-1M 48 caliber smoothbore gun capable of firing conventional ammunition with enhanced performance which can destroy modern tanks from a range of up to 3,500 m (APFSDS and HEAT-TANDEM) and barrel-launched Kombat ATGMs [uk] which have a penetration of 800 mm RHAe after ERA and are capable of destroying modern tanks from a distance up to 5,000 m. The gun weighs 2,5 tonnes, has a barrel length of 6 m (48 calibers) and can fire APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG rounds. The gun has a normal recoil length of 26-30 cm and maximum recoil length of 31 cm. Is not being considered as an option for upgrade by the Peruvian Army.
T-55 Fire Support - Uralvagonzavod is offering the Peruvian Army an upgrade for its T-55s as an alternative to replacement with new tanks. The proposal is to replace the turret of their current tanks with the turret of the BMPT. The BMPT turret is equipped with two 2A42 30 mm autocannons, two AGS-17 grenade launchers, four 9M120 Ataka-V ATGMs, and a PKTM machine gun. Every operator in the turret has a scope, and the main armament operator has a thermal camera, an optical sight, and a panoramic camera. It is also equipped with a laser detection system. Although the BMPT design fits onto a T-72 tank chassis, it can be adapted to fit on a T-55.
Poland
Polish-produced tanks often have different stowage arrangements. The arrangement includes a rectangular box mounted on the left side of the turret, a smaller square stowage box on the left side of the turret-rear, and a slightly different rear decking.
T-54AD - Polish T-54A command tank with additional radios and a radio range of 100 miles.
T-54AM - Polish and Czechoslovak production of the T-54B under license.
T-55U - Polish T-54 upgrade.
T-54 fitted with stand-off armour plates fitted to hull front and wire mesh screens around the turret to provide protection against ATGM.
T-55L - New-build Polish versions of the T-55A.
T-55LD - Polish T-54 tanks rebuilt to T-55A standard. 200 T-54 tanks have been rebuilt in 1975.
T-55AD-1 - Polish T-55A command tank with additional R-130 radio and reduced ammo storage to 38 rounds.
T-55AD-2 - Polish T-55A command tank with additional R-123 radio and reduced ammo storage to 38 rounds.
T-55AM "Merida" - Polish version of T-55AM developed between the late 1970s and early 1980s, fitted with a new SKO "Merida" (SKO stands for System Kierowania Ogniem - fire control system) fire control system with cross-wind sensor and a new CDDN-1 (CCDN stands for celownik-dalmierz dzienno-nocny - day/night sight-rangefinder) day/night sight-rangefinder system. The tank is also equipped with additional passive armour (type BDD) on the hull and turret front, and with a protection system that consists of a laser-warning system WPL-1 "Bobrawa" (Wykrywacz Promieniowania Laserowego) and WWGD-1 "Erb" (Wyrzutnia Wybuchowych Granatów Dymnych) and WPD-1 "Tellur" (Wyrzutnia Pocisków Dymnych) 81 mm smoke grenade launchers, both in clusters of 8 on each side of the turret. Finally, the original engine has been replaced by an upgraded W-55 WAX developing 613 hp (457 kW). Some were fitted with new radio sets like the R-123 or R-173. Considered to be a second generation MBT because of the high degree of modernization. In 2016 T-55AM Merida also became the first tank ever to be fitted with a LPG (autogas) alternative fuel installation. This was done as a publicity stunt and R&D project of STAG company from Białystok.
T-55AMS - Version without armour on the hull front, can be fitted with mine-clearing systems ZB/WLWD or KMT-5 or a dozer blade USCz-55. One per company.
T-55AD-1M - T-55AM "Merida" command tank with additional R-130 radio and reduced ammo storage to 38 rounds.
T-55AD-2M - T-55AM "Merida" command tank with additional R-123 radio and reduced ammo storage to 38 rounds.
T-55AM2BP - Polish licence version of the Czech T-55AM2B. For export only.
W-125SC - T-55A, or WZT-1 and BLG-67, converted into a transporter erector launcher of the S-125SC "Newa-SC" air-defence missile system. A fully rotating launcher for 4 missiles 5V27 is replacing the turret. Outer launcher arms fold against inner when moving and because of that two missiles are carried when moving and four when the vehicle is holding position.
WZT-1 (Wóz Zabezpieczenia Technicznego - Armoured recovery vehicle) - Polish ARV based on soviet BTS-2. It was built on T-55 and later T-55A hull. It was produced between 1970 and 1978.
WZT-2 (Wóz Zabezpieczenia Technicznego - Armoured recovery vehicle) - Polish ARV built on T-55 hull. It was built to perform repairs on T-55 and T-55A tanks. When it entered service in 1973 it was not only the best ARV in the whole Warsaw Pact but probably in the whole world. It is still able to carry out tasks that NATO gives ARVs of its class. Unlike the T-55 and the WZT-1, the WZT-2 is still the basic ARV of the Polish army used for field repairs. It's able to perform repairs not only on Soviet tanks like the T-54/T-55 and T-72 but also on Polish PT-91 and German Leopard 2A4. However, because all tanks currently in Polish service weigh more than 40 tons it is unable to tow them. It is used to tow lighter vehicles like BWP-1 and 2S1. A total number of 600 was produced. 80 were in service as of 2004. Some are used by Ratownictwo Kolejowe (Railroad emergency respond services). Many have private owners who bought them from the Polish Army. 196 of these vehicles were also sold to India. The vehicles were also bought by Iraq and Yugoslavia.
T-55A engineer tank, with KMT-4 mine plow on the front and boxes containing PW-LWD rapid explosive breaching system (similar to Giant Viper).
IWT (Inżynieryjny Wóz Torujący) - Polish combat engineer vehicle, based on the WZT-2 and fitted with a hydraulic dozer blade, a hydraulic arm and mine-clearing systems PW-LWD and KMT-5. It uses DShK 1938/46 heavy machine gun for antiaircraft protection. Entered service in very small numbers in 1978.
BLG-67 - Polish version of the East German bridge layer BLG-60.
BLG-67M - Similar to BLG-60M: improved model that makes it possible to attach 3 bridges together to bridge gaps of up to 52 m.
BLG-67M2 - Similar to BLG-60M2: improved model, widened by 20 cm.
Republika Srpska
SO 76 M-18 Mod - Late T-55 MBTs which were fitted by Bosnian Serbs with a turret of the M18 Hellcat tank destroyer. They were used for mechanic training before the war. Bosniak forces captured at least one.
T-55 converted by Bosnian Serbs into a SPAAG armed with a Bofors AA gun.
Rhodesia
T-55LD with South African FM tactical radio sets adopted from the Eland armoured car. The Eland's communications utilised throat-activated microphones and was considered superior to Soviet models; this system was also unique in that radios were operated by a Rhodesian tank commander, rather than loaders as was standard to T-55 doctrine. Eight Polish-made T-55 tanks destined for Idi Amin's regime in Uganda were diverted to Rhodesia by the South Africans, in the last year of the Rhodesian Bush War.
Romania
T-55AM or - General designator for three different models in Romanian service: the Russian T-55AM with "Volna" fire control system, the Czech T-55AM2 with "Kladivo" FCS and a locally upgraded model with "Ciclop" FCS (the T-55AM2R).
TR-580 or TR-77-580 - Romanian tank sometimes confused for a local-built T-55 version. Because of Romania's cold relations with the USSR at the time, which were a result of Romania refusing to take part in the Prague Spring, the country never acquired the license to build a Soviet tank. Therefore, the TR-77-580 isn't a locally-built T-55, despite being related to it. It seems to have Western influences, such as the extended chassis with 6 road wheels, like seen on the Centurion and Patton series. This was because the tank was intended to use the same engine as the Leopard 1 (which is also why some prototypes feature a Leopard-like extended engine deck - their elongated turret rear also looks Western-influenced). The refusal of Krauss-Maffei to deliver technology to a Warsaw Pact member and political desire to reach certain production figures meant that the V-55 engine of the T-55 was used instead. 227 TR-580s were in service in 2017.
TR-85 series - Successor of the TR-77-580.
Serbia
T-55H - Mobility improvement is: engine of increased power by building-in new, domestically produced, high pressure pump, installing new water cooler and oil cooler and modification of transmission by installing new toothed wheels. Firepower improvement: installing antiaircraft machine gun 12,7 mm M-87 and installing coupled machine-gun 7,62 mm M-84. Protection improving in: installing explosive protective armor, installing anti cumulative shields, installing new fire extinguisher using halon, modernization of device for nuclear protection, installing of smoke screen laying active protection system (active masking) and installing assembly block for fixing crewis cupola lid partly closed. Other improvements include installing device for self-entrenching, installing device for digging and deactivating mines KMT-6, installing assembly block for fixing crew's cupola lid, partly closed and modernization of active IR (infrared) devices and converting them into passive. In June 2015, Serbia sold its 282 modernized T-55 tanks to Pakistan. The Frontier Corps Paramilitary force of Pakistan also received ex-Serbian T-55M Tanks in 2020.
VIU-55 Munja - T-55 converted into engineering IFV, similar to Israeli IDF Achzarit.
Slovakia
UOS-155 "Belarty" (Univerzálny Odtarasovací Stroj) - Slovak combat engineer vehicle fitted with mine cleaner. The vehicle consist of a T-55 chassis with the armoured turret (with a hydraulic excavator fitted with shovel) of the UDS-214 engineer vehicle.
UOS-155B (Univerzálny Odtarasovací Stroj) - UOS-155 "Belarty" with hydraulic excavator fitted with mine clearing device.
SPOT-55 fire fighting tank with 2 water cannons and 11.000 litres of water, refurbished by the Voluntary Fire Brigade POLE to be used in special operations.
Slovenia
T-55S - The prototype for the M-55S.
M-55S - T-55 modernization developed by the STO RAVNE company and engineers of the Israeli company Elbit. Slovenia modernized 30 T-55 tanks in the inventory of its armed forces. The last T-55 was modernized to the M-55S standard in May 1999. The original 100 mm tank gun was replaced by the NATO-standard 105 mm one with a thermal sleeve. The armour protection of the tank was improved considerably by attaching Rafael ERA blocks to the hull and the turret. A digital ballistic computer was installed in order to improve the fire control system (FCS). The gunner has the Fotona SGS-55 two-axis stabilized day-and-night sight with an integral laser rangefinder. In addition to the integral optic sight the commander has the Fotona COMTOS-55 sight with an independent line-of-sight stabilization, which allows him to acquire targets and lay the gun independently if required. The driver has the Fotona CODRIS combined day/night observation periscope. The LIRD-1A laser illumination warning receiver was mated with front-mounted IS-6 smoke grenade launchers (of which there are six in two clusters, one per side of the turret) and can be automatically activated in an emergency. Modernization of the V-12 diesel engine resulted in an increase in power from 520 hp to 600 hp. The running gear has rubber side skirts and the tank was outfitted with new rubber and metal tracks. Improvements were also made to the communications aids. In October 2022, Slovenia gave 28 M-55S to Ukraine; Germany provides 40 transport vehicles to Slovenia, as Prime Minister Robert Golob and German Chancellor Olaf Scholz arranged some weeks ago. The vehicles will also serve for protection and rescue.
M-55S-USP - M-55S converted into a driver trainer vehicle. The turret has been replaced by a training enclosure with seats for an instructor and two trainee drivers. A third driver is in the normal driving position of the vehicle. It is also known as LM-55, M-55USP and USP9.
Sudan
Digna - Sudanese produced T-55 copy.
Ukraine
T-55 version modernized by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau fitted with 4 smoke grenade discharges cluster fitted to each side of turret front and laser rangefinder fitted above main armament.
T-55 version modernized by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau fitted with 125 mm KBM1 smoothbore gun.
T-55AGM - Ukrainian T-54/T-55 modernization. It brings up the T-54/T-55 tanks to T-80 standard. It can also be applied to Chinese made Type 59 and Soviet T-62. It is fitted with 5TDFM, two-stroke liquid-cooled multi-fuel supercharged diesel engine with opposed pistons which develops 850 hp (634 kW), improved running gear, automated movement control system with a steering handlebar control, additional passive protection, built-in explosive reactive armour, countermeasures system, new fire suppression system with over-ride facilities at the commander's station, automatic loader which holds 18 rounds and anti-aircraft machine gun that can be aimed and fired from within the turret under a complete armour protection. The anti-aircraft machine gun is installed on the commander's cupola and is intended to be fired at air and ground targets. The buyer can choose between two main armament options: 125 mm KBM1 smoothbore gun or 120 mm KBM2 smoothbore gun. Both of them with use of enhanced performance conventional ammunition and barrel-launched ATGM can defeat modern tanks form distance of 2000-3000 m and up to 5,000 m using the ATGM. The tank can carry at least 30 rounds. The 125 mm KBM1 smoothbore gun weighs 2,5 tonnes, has a barrel length of 6 m (48 calibers) and can fire APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG rounds while 120 mm KBM2 smoothbore gun weighs 2,63 tonnes, has a barrel length of 6 m (50 calibers) and can fire all types of ammunition that meet the requirements of NATO standards and Ukrainian-made ATGM. Both guns have normal recoil length of 26-30 cm and maximum recoil length of 31 cm. The tank can be armed with either the KT-7.62 or the PKT-7.62 coaxial machine gun and can carry 3,000 rounds for it. The tank can also be armed with either KT-12.7 or NSVT-12.7 heavy machine gun for AA protection and can carry 450 rounds for it. The approximate successful range is 2 km during day and 800 m during night. The AA HMG can be elevated between -5 to +70 degrees. The remote control for anti-aircraft machine gun is stabilized in the vertical axis during automatic mode (by using the TKN-5 sight) and is using the PZU-7 sight for semi-automatic mode.
T-55-64 - With T-64 suspension and powerplant.
T-55MV - The former Soviet Army tank repair plants number 7 in Kyiv and number 17 in Lviv in Ukraine have been promoting the T-55MV on the world market for several years. The turret, hull front section and side skirts of this version are protected by the Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour capable of withstanding hits from the American M829 120 mm armour-piercing depleted uranium ammunition. The main armament of the T-55MV was improved by employing the 9M117 "Bastion" (AT-10 Stabber) ATGM which can be launched through the barrel of the standard T-54/55 rifled gun. With an effective range of 4,000 m, the 9M117 "Bastion" (AT-10 Stabber) ATGM is capable of penetrating armour equivalent to 550 mm of steel plate. If the missile is equipped with a tandem warhead, its armour penetration capability increases. The Volna fire control system with its digital ballistic computer was also fitted. Syria was the first country to order 200 of its T-55s upgraded into the T-55MV.
Vietnam
T-54M (Vietnamese: T-54B cải tiến, lit. 'T-54B improved') - Vietnamese T-54B and Type 59 modernization program developed in the Z153 factory based on the experienced from the T-55M3 program designed by Israel for the Vietnamese People's Army. The armour protection of the tank was improved considerably by attaching Vietnamese second-generation ERA blocks to the upper front hull and the turret. The tank received Spain-produced Indra TIFCS-3BU fire control system. The original 100 mm tank gun D-10T2S received thermal sleeve, a DShK or NSVT 12.7 mm heavy machine gun, a PKT 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, laser rangefinder system which works in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera for increased accuracy and operated in the dark. A computer system is also installed, allowing the vehicle to have stability control, calculate the tilt, the speed of the vehicle. In the driver's position installed with a hydraulic power steering system allowing the steering column, brakes and clutch become much easier. In terms of communication, the tank is equipped with a Russian-produced RF2050 multi-band system and/or the indigenously produced systems made by Viettel.
Yugoslavia
TZI-JVBT - Czechoslovak JVBT-55A in service with Yugoslav Army.
T-55TZI - Yugoslavian modification of the VT-55A armored recovery vehicle.
T-55AI "Igman" - Yugoslav upgrade of the T-55A, intended for modernization of YPA's aging fleet of T-55s. It was using sophisticated components from M-84, local produced advanced versions of T-72, with whom it was in parallel development. Major improvements included external mounting of 2 rails for AT-3 Sagger missiles, an engine from T-72, a simplified SUV with meteosensor and laser rangefinders from M-84, addition of spaced armor on turret and front body, and installation of smoke dispensers. About 20 were made before break-up of Yugoslavia. Prototypes were impressed into regular service, however there is no data of them being used in combat. A variant of this modification, intended for export, was armed with L7A1 105 mm gun.

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